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Norilsk(nərēlsk`), city (1989 pop. 175,000), Krasnoyarsk Territory, N Siberian Russia. The northernmost major city of Russia and the world's second largest city (after MurmanskMurmansk
, city (1989 pop. 468,000), capital of Murmansk region, NW European Russia, on the Kola Gulf of the Barents Sea. It is the terminus of the Northeast Passage and the world's largest city N of the Arctic Circle, with a polar research institute.
..... Click the link for more information. ) above the Arctic Circle, Norilsk is the center of a region where nickel, copper, palladium, cobalt, platinum, and coal are mined. A railroad links Norilsk with the Yenisei port of DudinkaDudinka
, city (1989 pop. 32,000), Krasnoyarsk Territory, N Siberian Russia, on the Yenisei River. It is the river port for the Norilsk mining area and is accessible to seagoing ships. It is connected by rail with Norilsk.
..... Click the link for more information. , from where ores are shipped via the Northern Sea Route to European Russia; the isolated city is connected to most Russia only by air or sea. Hydroelectric plants are nearby, and natural gas is found in Tyumen. Founded in 1935, Norilsk was the site (1935–56) of forced labor camps during the Stalin era. The city's metallurgical industry has resulted in significant regional pollution.
a city under krai jurisdiction in Krasnoiarsk Krai, RSFSR; one of the northernmost cities in the world. Its construction was begun in 1935, and in 1937 a railroad was completed, linking the city with the port of Dudinka on the Enisei River (122 km, now electrified). The population of the city was 156,000 in 1974 (in 1939 it was 14,000, and in 1959, 118,000). Noril’sk is a major mining and metallurgical center, refining local copper-nickel sulfide ores. There are metalworking and construction-materials industries.
Although the first general plan of Noril’sk (1939) attempted to create a large scale for the first northern city, it did not sufficiently take into account climatic conditions, such as permafrost, strong winds, and the polar night. The actual building of the city (chief architect, V. S. Nepokoichitskii) eliminated a number of problems of the original plan: the streets were laid out perpendicular to the direction of the wind, the paths of the streets were interrupted in order to break the force of the wind, and areas were built up completely, forming enclosed courtyards that are protected from snowdrifts. A new general development plan was drawn up for the city in 1961.
Noril’sk has a drama theater (1954), a swimming pool (1959), the Palace of Culture of the mining and metallurgical combine (1965), and an indoor skating rink (1971). Educational establishments include the Agricultural Research Institute of the Far North, an evening industrial institute, and a music school. On Jan. 28, 1971, Noril’sk was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.
REFERENCESShcheglov, S., and A. Bondarev. Gorod Noril’sk. [Krasnoiarsk] 1958.
Dunaev, V. P. Samyi severnyi. Moscow, 1960.
Lebedinskii, V. N., and P. I. Mel’nikov. Zvezda Zapoliar’ia. Moscow, 1971.