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Norilsk (nərēlskˈ), city (1989 pop. 175,000), Krasnoyarsk Territory, N Siberian Russia. The northernmost major city of Russia and the world's second largest city (after Murmansk) above the Arctic Circle, Norilsk is the center of a region where nickel, copper, palladium, cobalt, platinum, and coal are mined. A railroad links Norilsk with the Yenisei port of Dudinka, from where ores are shipped via the Northern Sea Route to European Russia; the isolated city is connected to most Russia only by air or sea. Hydroelectric plants are nearby, and natural gas is found in Tyumen. Founded in 1935, Norilsk was the site (1935–56) of forced labor camps during the Stalin era. The city's metallurgical industry has resulted in significant regional pollution.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city under krai jurisdiction in Krasnoiarsk Krai, RSFSR; one of the northernmost cities in the world. Its construction was begun in 1935, and in 1937 a railroad was completed, linking the city with the port of Dudinka on the Enisei River (122 km, now electrified). The population of the city was 156,000 in 1974 (in 1939 it was 14,000, and in 1959, 118,000). Noril’sk is a major mining and metallurgical center, refining local copper-nickel sulfide ores. There are metalworking and construction-materials industries.

Although the first general plan of Noril’sk (1939) attempted to create a large scale for the first northern city, it did not sufficiently take into account climatic conditions, such as permafrost, strong winds, and the polar night. The actual building of the city (chief architect, V. S. Nepokoichitskii) eliminated a number of problems of the original plan: the streets were laid out perpendicular to the direction of the wind, the paths of the streets were interrupted in order to break the force of the wind, and areas were built up completely, forming enclosed courtyards that are protected from snowdrifts. A new general development plan was drawn up for the city in 1961.

Noril’sk has a drama theater (1954), a swimming pool (1959), the Palace of Culture of the mining and metallurgical combine (1965), and an indoor skating rink (1971). Educational establishments include the Agricultural Research Institute of the Far North, an evening industrial institute, and a music school. On Jan. 28, 1971, Noril’sk was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.


Shcheglov, S., and A. Bondarev. Gorod Noril’sk. [Krasnoiarsk] 1958.
Dunaev, V. P. Samyi severnyi. Moscow, 1960.
Lebedinskii, V. N., and P. I. Mel’nikov. Zvezda Zapoliar’ia. Moscow, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
* Gipronickel Institute, a research and development facility located in Saint Petersburg (Russia), with branches in the cities of Norilsk and Monchegorsk;
Mr Molale explained that Norilsk and government had, in December 2017, agreed to settle all outstanding claims and disputes in respect of the agreement amounting to US$45 million to be paid by government to Norilsk.
A parking lot near a Norilsk metallurgical plant appeared to have been most affected by the slush.
In 2000-02, he was deputy mayor of Norilsk for finance and economics and first deputy mayor of Norilsk.
The operations in question include Norilsk's 50% stake in the Nkomati nickel and chrome mine and its 85% holding in the Tati Nickel Mining company.
The British bank has sent out information to prospective buyers for assets including Norilsk's 50 percent stake in the Nkomati joint venture in South Africa.
Norilsk Nickel released its financial results for FY 2012.
14 June 2012 - Rosbank has agreed to provide Russian nickel and palladium producer Mining and Metallurgical Company Norilsk Nickel with a RUB1.5bn (USD46m/EUR37m) letter of credit, the Russian lender said on Thursday.
Holding also holds 25 per cent of Norilsk, told reporters in Moscow that Rusal should either sell out or merge with Norilsk.
THE INTRODUCTION of 10% fixed export duty on nickel and copper in Russia from November 2010 should not negatively affect profits of Norilsk Nickel, world's largest producer of nickel and palladium, thanks to high profitability of the company.