Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
Related to Normalizing: tempering
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a type of heat treatment of steel in which the metal is heated to a temperature above the upper critical point, held at this temperature, and then cooled in still air. The purpose of normalizing is to impart to the metal a uniform, fine-grained structure that could not be achieved in the preceding casting, forging, or rolling processes and, as a result, to produce improved mechanical properties (ductility and impact toughness).

In normalizing low-carbon and medium-carbon steels, decomposition of austenite takes place, with formation of a mixture of ferrite with pearlite and sorbite. Shaped steel castings are normalized to remove the coarse-grained cast structure, which results in poor mechanical properties. Rolled and forged steels are normalized to remove structural nonuniformities that are caused by the conditions of deformation and cooling. Normalization procedures are determined by the temperature to which the metal is heated (austenitization temperature), the holding time at that temperature, and the cooling rate. The heating temperature for normalization is 20°-50°C above the upper critical point. The holding time should be the minimum time that is required to achieve uniform heating throughout the cross section of the article. The cooling rate in still air is usually 150°-250°C per hr. However, for normalizing large articles the cooling rate should depend on the dimensions of the articles, the composition of the steel, and the kinetics of the austenite transformations. An increase in the rate of heating and a reduction of the holding times and temperatures to a minimum produce finer austenite grains and a more disperse mixture of pearlite or sorbite with ferrite.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
As a result, by replacing x, [x.sub.f], [y.sub.f], [x.sub.d], and [y.sub.d] by their values in the expression (3) its normalizing function is such that
Haraguchi and Song are the respective countries' ambassadors in charge of negotiations on normalizing bilateral ties.
However, Riyadh totally turned down in Washington last week such US calls, with Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud al-Faisal saying that peace and Israel's withdrawal from occupied Arab land are prerequisites for normalizing Arab-Israeli ties.
Japan's chief delegate Kenichiro Sasae told his counterparts during Monday's plenary session of the talks that Japan will ''make utmost efforts'' for normalizing ties with Pyongyang by resolving abduction, nuclear and missile issues, and by settling an unfortunate past, according to the Japanese Foreign Ministry.
"Not one Arab has the right to speak of normalizing diplomatic relations with Israel," AD DUSTOUR reported the papers as saying, "Arabs should instead work to unify Arab opinions and support the resistance against Israel in favor of Arab interests." Syrian dailies almost unanimously said that normalizing ties with Israel would be a "huge political mistake, if not more than that."
Tokyo, in the meantime, has not made public any documents about its negotiations with South Korea that led to normalized relations out of concerns for ''adverse effects on talks for normalizing ties with North Korea in the future.''
They will link their response to such a call to a set of conditions so as to guarantee they will not take normalizing peace measures with the Israelis, no matter how "symbolic", without anything in return, the source added.
Normalizing Japan-North Korea relations will benefit both countries,'' Koizumi said.
North Korea appears to have come up with a view that Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi is rushing to resume bilateral talks on normalizing diplomatic ties to boost his political leadership following the setback for his ruling Liberal Democratic Party in July's election, a former U.S.
Government sources said the closure was in response to Thailand's apparent unwillingness to reply to Cambodian concessions toward normalizing relations.
Britain and North Korea will hold two days of preliminary talks on normalizing diplomatic relations later this week in London, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) said Tuesday.
North Korea and Britain plan to begin working-level talks next week in London on normalizing diplomatic ties, South Korea's Yonhap News Agency reported Thursday.