Normandy campaign


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Normandy campaign,

June to Aug., 1944, in World War II. The Allied invasion of the European continent through Normandy began about 12:15 AM on June 6, 1944 (D-day). The plan, known as Operation Overlord, had been prepared since 1943; supreme command over its execution was entrusted to Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. In May, 1944, tactical bombing was begun in order to destroy German communications in N France. Just after midnight on June 6, British and American airborne forces landed behind the German coastal fortifications known as the Atlantic Wall. They were followed after daybreak by the seaborne troops of the U.S. 1st Army and British 2d Army. Field Marshal B. L. Montgomery was in command of the Allied land forces. Some 4,000 transports, 800 warships, and innumerable small craft, under Admiral Sir B. H. Ramsay, supported the invasion, and more than 11,000 aircraft, under Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, formed a protective umbrella. While naval guns and Allied bombers assaulted the beach fortifications, the men swarmed ashore. At the base of the Cotentin peninsula the U.S. forces established two beachheads—Utah Beach, W of the Vire River, and Omaha Beach, E of the Vire, the scene of the fiercest fighting. British troops, who had landed near Bayeux on three beaches called Gold, Juno, and Sword, advanced quickly but were stopped before Caen. On June 12 the fusion of the Allied beachheads was complete. The German commander, Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, found that Allied air strength prevented use of his reserves. U.S. forces under Gen. Omar N. Bradley cut off the Cotentin peninsula (June 18), and Cherbourg surrendered on June 27. The Americans then swung south. After difficult fighting in easily defendable "hedgerow" country they captured (July 18) the vital communications center of Saint-Lô, cutting off the German force under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. The U.S. 3d Army under Gen. George S. Patton was thrown into the battle and broke through the German left flank at Avranches. Patton raced into Brittany and S to the Loire, swinging east to outflank Paris. A German attempt to cut the U.S. forces in two at Avranches was foiled (Aug. 7–11). The British had taken Caen on July 9, but they were again halted by a massive German tank concentration. They resumed their offensive in August and captured Falaise on Aug. 16. Between them and the U.S. forces driving north from Argentan the major part of the German 7th Army was caught in the "Falaise pocket" and was wiped out by Aug. 23, opening the way for the Allies to overrun N France.

Bibliography

See G. A. Harrison, Cross Channel Attack (1951); C. Ryan, The Longest Day (1959, repr. 1967); A. McKee, Last Round against Rommel (1964); A. A. Mitchie, The Invasion of Europe (1964); Army Times Ed., D-day, the Greatest Invasion (1969); S. E. Ambrose, D-day, June 6, 1944 (1994); R. J. Drez, Voices of D-day (1994); R. Miller, Nothing Less than Victory (1994); T. A. Wilson, D-day 1944 (1994); A. Beevor, D-day: The Battle for Normandy (2009).

References in periodicals archive ?
Hart's (1996) analysis of the difficulties faced by German forces in transporting fuel and munitions during the Normandy Campaign remains the most detailed available, but landscape evidence in the Foret domaniale des Andaines is beginning to challenge some of his assumptions regarding Allied bombing of the depots themselves (Capps Tunwell et al.
Readers familiar with the events of the Normandy campaign will find a familiar story well told.
Unfortunately their works have not been the basis for a more profound and focused analysis of the Normandy campaign in film and contemporary writings.
In Chapter ten, for example, we meet Lieutenant John Gorman, a troop commander in the 2nd Irish Guards: during the Normandy campaign of 1944, Lieutenant Gorman won the Military Cross for knocking out a much more powerful German tank--by charging and ramming it with his own.
Representatives from the military and veterans who served in D-Day/Battle of Normandy Campaign were also in attendance.
The unit was awarded battle credits for participation in the Normandy Campaign.
Thanks to their generosity we are now able to make what will surely be a memorable day at Duxford on Sunday, June 6 free for veterans of the Normandy Campaign.
Thames & Hudson have done a second great service for anyone interested in Normandy in bringing out a well-produced and balanced account of the invasion itself and the subsequent two months of the Norman campaign in Charles Messenger's The D-Day Atlas: Anatomy of the Normandy Campaign (176 pages, ISBN 0-500-25123-1, [pounds sterling]22.
During the whole Normandy campaign, there were 200,000 allied casualties.
No such circumstance pertained in the Normandy campaign.
All of these deaths occurred over the 49-day period of the Normandy campaign.
Certainly the Germans had cumbersome and bad command arrangements for the Normandy campaign, and Hitler did hamstring German operations with restrictive orders.