norm

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norm,

authoritative rule or standard by which something is judged and on that basis approved or disapproved. Examples of norms include standards of right and wrong, beauty and ugliness, and truth and falsehood. Several fields of philosophy, especially ethicsethics,
in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a particular society
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, aestheticsaesthetics
, the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of art and the criteria of artistic judgment. The classical conception of art as the imitation of nature was formulated by Plato and developed by Aristotle in his Poetics,
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, and logiclogic,
the systematic study of valid inference. A distinction is drawn between logical validity and truth. Validity merely refers to formal properties of the process of inference.
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, evaluate such rules; in sociology, social and institutional norms, more communal and less formal than laws, are studied in relation to conformity, and to anomie or normlessness. See also Émile DurkheimDurkheim, Émile
, 1858–1917, French sociologist. Along with Max Weber he is considered one of the chief founders of modern sociology. Educated in France and Germany, Durkheim taught social science at the Univ. of Bordeaux and the Sorbonne.
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.

norm

a standard or rule, regulating behaviour in a social setting. The idea that social life, as an ordered and continuous process, is dependent upon shared expectations and obligations, is commonly found in sociological approaches, although some place more emphasis on it than others. For DURKHEIM, society was theorized as a moral order. This perspective was influential in the development of modern FUNCTIONALISM, particularly in the work of PARSONS, where the concept of NORMATIVE ORDER is the central element of the SOCIAL SYSTEM. Here the idea of norms is related to SOCIALIZATION and ROLES. These prescriptions operate at every level of society, from individuals actions in daily life, e.g. in table manners or classroom behaviour, to the formulation of legal systems in advanced societies. The concept of norms also implies that of SOCIAL CONTROL, i.e. positive or negative means of ensuring conformity and applying sanctions to deviant behaviour (see DEVIANCE).

Other sociological approaches deal with the issue of social order in rather different ways. In some, RULES are emphasized, rather than norms, whilst in others there is a greater emphasis on POWER and coercion.

Norm

 

(1) The minimum of something, as established by a rule or plan, for example, a time norm or sowing norm.

(2) A rule or viewpoint generally accepted in a particular social milieu; a rule of social conduct expressed in a law (legal norm).

(3) A rule or law in some branch of learning, for example, a linguistic norm.

(4) The average of something, such as a flow norm.

(5) Norm of representation, the number of deputies or delegates representing a preestablished number of voters in elective bodies or at congresses and conferences.

(6) Typographic norm, the title of a book or the name of its author, printed in small type on the first page of every printed sheet.


Norm

 

a mathematical concept that generalizes the concept of the absolute value of a number. For example, the norm of a vector x is the length of the vector and is denoted by ǀǀxǀǀ. The norm of a quaternion a + bi + cj + dk is the number a2 + b2 + c2 + d2; the norm of a matrix A is the number

and the norm of an algebraic number is the product of all the numbers conjugated with it, including the number itself. The norm is used extensively in the theory of linear spaces. We can find the norm for linear functionals in a given linear space according to the formula

and for linear operators according to the formula

norm

[nȯrm]
(mathematics)
A scalar valued function on a vector space with properties analogous to those of the modulus of a complex number; namely: the norm of the zero vector is zero, all other vectors have positive norm, the norm of a scalar times a vector equals the absolute value of the scalar times the norm of the vector, and the norm of a sum is less than or equal to the sum of the norms.
For a matrix, the square root of the sum of the squares of the moduli of the matrix entries.
For a quaternion, the product of the quaternion and its conjugate.
(metallurgy)
(petrology)
The theoretical mineral composition of a rock expressed in terms of standard mineral molecules as determined by means of chemical analyses.
(quantum mechanics)
The square of the modulus of a Schrödinger-Pauli wave function, integrated over the space coordinates and summed over the spin coordinates of the particles it describes.
The square root of this quantity.

norm

1. Maths
a. the length of a vector expressed as the square root of the sum of the square of its components
b. another name for mode
2. Geology the theoretical standard mineral composition of an igneous rock

norm

(mathematics)
A real-valued function modelling the length of a vector. The norm must be homogeneous and symmetric and fulfil the following condition: the shortest way to reach a point is to go straight toward it. Every convex symmetric closed surface surrounding point 0 introduces a norm by means of Minkowski functional; all vectors that end on the surface have the same norm then.

The most popular norm is the Euclidean norm.
References in periodicals archive ?
To test whether injunctive norms predicted personal substance use, we used multi-level modeling to control for the nesting of student-athletes (level 1) in different schools (level 2).
In contrast, German G500 belong to the world's largest companies that have the capacity to accept and implement the norms of transnational VAR in environmental governance.
For example, some research has suggested that even though women are highly aware of sexual double-standards and expectations, their behavior is not highly influenced by these broad norms (Lyons, Giordano, Manning, & Longmore, 2011).
In recent years, Schmidt and Tomasello, along with Hannes Rakoczy of the University of Gottingen, have conducted several studies with the aim of examining how children use constitutive norms and identifying the point at which they stop thinking of game rules as dictates handed down by powerful authorities and begin thinking of them as something like a mutual social agreement.
The norms that are actionable under Sosa prohibit acts that are both specifically defined and universally condemned--acts like torture, genocide, and war crimes.
This is not just theoretical; as such paralysis can affect anyone who finds himself in an unfamiliar situation with no norms to rely on.
In order to estimate the legal nature of ISO norms we will analyse whether they constitute a part of hard law or soft law.
7 "Norm Cascade of the 1990s: Mushrooming of Initiatives and the Targeting of Nike" and 8 "Continued Norm Cascade: Voluntary Standards, Accountability Through Law, and Good Practice and Partnership" deal with the "norm cascade".
The decision to introduce Bharat Stage IV and III norms was taken in 2003 to control vehicular emissions and improve the quality of air.
Thus, our definition of cooperative norms as the shared belief and expectation of two parties that they must work together to achieve mutual goals (Baker et al.
This letter was ignoring all procedural norms of this Canon.
We are grateful for this gift from Anheuser-Busch and for the opportunity to establish the National Social Norms Institute at the University," said U.