norovirus

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norovirus

or

Norwalk virus,

highly contagious viral disease caused by infection with an RNA virus of the genus Norovirus. The virus causes acute gastroenteritis, usually one to two days after infection; typical symptoms are abdominal pain and cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, and a low-grade fever. Dehydration may result if enough liquids are not consumed to replace lost fluids. There is no treatment for norovirus, which usually lasts one to three days and does not result in severe illness, but it may become life-threatening if an infected person becomes dehydrated. Dehydration may be treated by administering fluids intravenously. A person typically remains contagious for several days after the acute illness has ended.

Norovirus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, most commonly through person-to-person contact a result of poor hygiene or through food contaminated by an infected food preparer or handler. Ingestion of uncooked shellfish harvested from contaminated waters or of contaminated drinking water may also transmit the disease. Outbreaks most commonly occur in settings where individuals are in close quarters, such as hospitals, nursing homes, and retirement homes, vacation resorts and cruise ships, and child-care centers and schools, and spread rapidly; most epidemic viral gastroenteritis is caused by a Norovirus. The virus can persist in the environment on some surfaces for a relatively extended period of time, and is resistant to disinfection by alcohol- or detergent-based agents, but soap and water is effective in blocking the spread of the disease. The disease was first identified as result of an outbreak in a Norwalk, Ohio, elementary school in 1968.

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Vi rus genotype distribution and virus burden in children and adults hospitalized for norovirus gastroenteritis, 2012-2014, Hong Kong.
Norovirus gastroenteritis at the Ulleval university hospital [Article in Norwegian].
If there was no clean drinking water, or the sewage water mixed with drinking water, gastrointestinal diseases such as cholera, dysentery or norovirus gastroenteritis might spread,'' Lo said.
Norovirus gastroenteritis is a foodborne disease, although secondary person-to-person transmission is also common, and the potential transmission pathway was first recognized after a large outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia in 1978 (Lees 2000, Parashar & Monroe 2001).
4 have emerged approximately every 2-3 years and have caused norovirus gastroenteritis pandemics globally (6).
Guideline for the prevention and control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in healthcare settings.
It has typical symptoms of vomiting and diarrhoea and outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis are common in semiclosed environments such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools and cruise ships.
Our study design element of selecting no specific age group enabled us to determine that infants and young children represented approximately half of the hospitalized case-patients with norovirus gastroenteritis during the 1-year study period, during which the newly emerged GII.
Norovirus gastroenteritis in young children receiving human rotavirus vaccine.
On the basis of these rates of disease and a life expectancy of 79 years, a US resident would experience 5 episodes of norovirus gastroenteritis in his or her lifetime and an average lifetime risk for norovirus-associated outpatient visit, ED visit, hospitalization, and death of 1 in 2, 1 in 9, 1 in 50-70, and 1 in 5,000-7,000, respectively.