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any of the various North Germanic languages of Norway



the language of the Norwegians and the official language of Norway. Norwegian is spoken in Norway, the USA, and Canada by about 5 million people (1970, estimate), including 3.9 million in Norway. Norwegian belongs to the Scandinavian group of Germanic languages. It has a large number of dialects. Special phonetic features include musical accent (simple and complex) and a relationship between length of vowel and consonant in a stressed syllable (syllabic equilibrium). The basic grammatical features are two cases for nouns (common and genitive), a suffixal definite article, weak and strong adjectives, and the absence of personal endings in the verb.

There are two forms of literary Norwegian: Riksmål (or Bok-mål) and Landsmål (Nynorsk, or Neo-Norwegian). The oldest linguistic remains are runic inscriptions of the tenth and 11th centuries, when Norwegian had begun to separate from proto-Scandinavian. The oldest manuscripts date to the second half of the 12th century. The writing system is based on the Latin alphabet.

Literary Danish became widespread in Norway in the late 14th century. A reaction against the domination of Danish began in the first half of the 19th century. In the mid-19th century a rivalry began between the two forms of literary Norwegian—Riksmål and Landsmål. The former arose in the 19th century on the basis of a Danish lexicon and grammar but Norwegian phonetics, and the latter was formed in the 19th century as a result of the artificial synthesis of Norwegian dialects. Riksmål is used far more widely than Landsmål.


Steblin-Kamenskii, M. I. Istoriia skandinavskikh iazykov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.
Steblin-Kamenskii, M. I. Grammatika norvezhskogo iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1957.
Steblin-Kamenskii, M. I. “Vozmozhno li planirovanie iazykovogo razvitiia? (norvezhskoe iazykovoe dvizhenie v tupike).” Voprosy iazykoz-naniia, 1968, no. 3.
Arakin, V. D. Norvezhsko-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1963.


References in periodicals archive ?
Erik Haugane, CEO of Det norske, says the development has been extraordinary.
Rynning-Tonnesen commented, "This is a nice recognition after a period of much hard work by a united Norske Skog team.
Unionen is one of the largest individual shareholder of Norske Skog.
Norske makes the point, though, that average benchmark newsprint prices in the second quarter were up an overall $50 per tonne or about 10 percent.
He was a member of Norske Skog's board of directors in the period 2001-2005, and the employees' representative at Norske Skog's Norwegian units in the period 2000-2006.
Norske Skog is the plant's primary customer and buys about 120,000 metric tons of de-ink pulp per year.
Project Management Institute (PMI(R)), the global advocacy organization for the project management profession, and Det Norske Veritas Certification (DNV), the world leader in risk services, have introduced the OPM3(R) ProductSuite, a portfolio of assessment and improvement tools developed to measure the maturity of organizational project management capabilities.
Norway's Det Norske has acquired UK-based independent explorer Premier Oil's Norwegian assets for US$120 million, after approving to acquire Svenksa Petroleum for $75 Million.
Oslo, Dec 12, 2007 - (ACN Newswire) - Unionen AS, Norske Skog's largest single shareholder, welcomes the plans regarding a restructuring of Norske Skog's Asian activities.
But arguably Norske Skog's acquisition of a full shareholding in the PanAsia Paper Company is the main piece of action as 2006 gets under way.
All three companies cited the strength of the Canadian dollar (well, Norske called it the "U.
Project Management Institute (PMI(R)), the world's leading not-for-profit professional association for the project management profession, and Det Norske Veritas Certification (DNV), the world leader in providing services for managing risk, today announced the creation of a strategic alliance to make more readily available the suite of Ancillary Products and Services (APS) for PMI's Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3(R)).