North China Plain

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North China Plain:

see Huang HeHuang He,
 Hwang Ho
, or Yellow River,
great river of N China, c.3,000 mi (4,830 km) long, rising in the twin lakes Gyaring and Ngoring in the Kunlun Mts., NW Qinghai prov.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

North China Plain


(also Great Lowlands of China), one of the largest plains in Eastern Asia, in China. It is washed by the Yellow Sea in the east and bounded by the Yen mountains in the north; the Taihang range in the west, whose eastern slopes break up into steep terraces up to 1,000 m high along the side of the plain; and the Tongbai and Dabie ranges in the southwest. The lower course of the Yangtze River flows along the southern edge of the plain. The area of the plain totals approximately 325,000 sq km. At the foot of the western mountain belt, which is made up of ancient alluvial fans, the plain has an elevation of approximately 100 m. The elevation descends to 50 m or less along the seacoast. This part of the plain is completely flat, with insignificant slopes and an abundance of shallow depressions that are periodically filled by floodwaters. Many depressions have become swamps and have shallow lakes. The Shantung mountains are located within the eastern portion of the plain. The North China Plain is composed of very deep alluvial deposits, principally redeposited loesses.

In addition to the Huang Ho, the major rivers are the Hai Ho, Huai Ho, and Luan Ho. All rivers follow the monsoon cycle with abrupt seasonal flow variations. Peak summer river discharges are often 100 times greater than the spring minimums. The constant discharge is exceptionally great, as is the accumulation of river alluvium. Because of this, in some places the riverbeds, including that of the Huang Ho, have risen 10 m above the surrounding terrain and thus threaten to break through shore protection structures during heavy floods. The plain has been subjected in the past to frequent floods caused by river overflows, which have been great disasters for the population. In the 1950’s large hydraulic projects were built to control the flow and to utilize the river waters for irrigation. The plain is traversed from north to south by the Great Canal.

The North China Plain has a subtropical monsoon climate. Cold dry air emanating from the inland regions of Asia prevails during the winter. Average January temperatures are -4° C to -2° C in the north and 8° C to 12° C in the south. The summer is hot and rainy, with average temperatures of 25° C to 28° C in July. Precipitation amounts to 400-500 mm annually in the north and 750-1,000 mm annually in the south. There is a marked difference between the summer maximum and the meager precipitation during the winter (2-3 percent of the yearly total) and transitional seasons. The onset and ending of the summer monsoon season and its intensity vary greatly from year to year and thus give rise both to periodic severe droughts and to long heavy downpours. The broad-leaved forests, mixed with subtropical evergreens in the south, which had formerly grown on the North China Plain, no longer exist. Small groves of ash, poplars, thujas, and pine have been planted among the agricultural fields. Rich alluvial soils, greatly changed by cultivation, are predominant. The plain area, notable for its high degree of agricultural development, is the most important region for the growing of wheat, cotton, peanuts, and tobacco. The plain has an extremely high population density; numerous rural population centers and cities (among them, Peking; Tientsin, and Chinan) are concentrated here.


Fizicheskaia geografiia Kitaia. Moscow, 1964.
Lebedev, V. G. Osnovnye problemy geomorfologii Vostochnogo Kitaia. Saratov, 1968.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Yield and N use efficiency of a maize-wheat cropping system as affected by different fertilizer management strategies in a farmer's field of the North China Plain. Field Crops Res.
Zhang, "Nitrogen inputs and isotopes in precipitation in the North China Plain," Atmospheric Environment, vol.
Zhu, X., and Coauthors, 2016: Regional pollution and its formation mechanism over North China Plain: A case study with ceilometer observations and model simulations.
In the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta, and Sichuan Basin, which have dense industries and relatively high population densities, the BC aerosol concentrations are relatively high.
The resultant positive changes in soil temperature and shoot growth parameters reduced the shoot death caused by frost damage and improved shoot winter survival under the CW treatment, making it a viable option for improving wheat production in the North China Plain. Since physicochemical presowing seed treatments have been reported to be highly efficient in enhancing the germination, growth, and productively of crops, further experiments for the synthetic action of postsowing compaction and presowing seed treatments are needed to confirm the effects of enhancing crop growth characteristics and productivity.
The present study has demonstrated that, overall, NTCT provides considerable improvements over the current farming system in the annual maize and wheat crop rotation area of the North China Plain. In combination with its advantages regarding the physical and biological properties of the soil, controlled traffic could potentially be an effective tool for sustainable agriculture in this area.
Winter wheat yield potentials and yield gaps in the North China Plain. Field Crops Res., 143: 98-105
Meanwhile, in Beijing, city officials are worried that the depletion of the aquifer under the North China Plain (due to unsustainable withdrawals for industry and agriculture) will one day leave city faucets dry.
In China, dry late fall weather may have impacted pre- winter development of wheat in some areas of the North China Plain though the sub-soil moisture is still likely good.
For example, a policy of increased on-farm irrigation efficiency in the North China Plain reduced pumping rates by 50%--giving the illusion of conservation, but failed to stem the rapid decline of groundwater due to increases in ET--thereby reducing deep percolation of unconsumed irrigation water recharging the aquifer.
Relying chiefly on contemporary CCP reports, and newspapers, and once-classified Japanese materials, Gatu examines three of the anti-Japanese base areas on the north China plain, not including the area around Yanan.
Ahuja has been involved in a series of three studies with computer models backed by field experiments in areas of increasingly limited and erratic rainfall and irrigation water: Two studies were in wheat-corn double-cropping systems in the North China Plain area, and one was in northeastern Colorado corn fields in the U.S.

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