Schleswig

(redirected from North Schleswig)
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Schleswig

, former duchy, Germany and Denmark

Schleswig (shlĕsˈvĭkh), Dan. Slesvig, former duchy, N Germany and S Denmark, occupying the southern part of Jutland. The Eider River separates it from Holstein. German Schleswig forms part of Schleswig-Holstein. Danish Schleswig, known as North Schleswig (Dan. Nordslesvig or Sønderjylland) includes the cities of Åbenrå, Haderslev, Sønderborg, and Tønder, and was incorporated with Denmark following a plebiscite in 1920.

The duchy of Schleswig, created in 1115, was a hereditary fief held from the kings of Denmark. King Waldemar III (who had been duke of Schleswig as Waldemar V) conferred Schleswig on his uncle, Gerhard, and granted a charter forbidding the union of Schleswig and Denmark under a single overlord. In 1386 the count of Holstein received Schleswig as a hereditary fief. His descendant, Christian I of Denmark, inherited (1460) both Schleswig and Holstein, but he was obliged to recognize the inseparability of the two territories and to affirm that they were bound to the Danish crown by a personal union only.

In the 16th cent. Schleswig and Holstein (which had also become a duchy) underwent complex subdivisions, although theoretically the principle of the inseparability of the two duchies was not violated. The three main divisions were: a ducal portion, including parts of both duchies, which was conferred on Adolphus, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, younger brother of Christian III of Denmark, and on his descendants, the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp; a royal portion, including parts of both duchies, ruled directly by the Danish kings; and a common portion, ruled jointly by the Danish kings and the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp.

By the Treaty of Roskilde (1658) the Danish crown renounced its suzerainty over ducal Schleswig; the resulting quarrels between Denmark and the duke of Holstein-Gottorp were a major factor in the Northern War (1700–1721), which ended with the dispossession of Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp and the union of the ducal portion of Schleswig with the Danish crown. Grand Duke Paul (later Emperor Paul I), renounced (1773) the ducal portion of Holstein, yielding it to the Danish crown, in exchange for Oldenburg. Thus all Schleswig and Holstein were once more united under the Danish kings. The events related in the article Schleswig-Holstein led to the annexation (1866) of both duchies by Prussia.


Schleswig

, city, Germany
Schleswig, city (1994 pop. 26,857), Schleswig-Holstein, N Germany, on the Schlei, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. The city's economy is based on the production of food products and leather and on fishing. One of the oldest cities in N Germany, Schleswig was known by c.800. It was a Roman Catholic episcopal see from 947 until the Reformation (16th cent.). The city was the residence of the dukes of Schleswig and (1514–1713) of the dukes of Holstein-Gottorp. It was the capital of Schleswig-Holstein from 1866 to 1917, when it was replaced as capital by Kiel. The fortified Gottorf, or Gottorp, castle (16th–18th cent.) in Schleswig now houses museums of art and early history. The Gothic Cathedral of St. Peter (12th–15th cent.) contains a fine carved reredos by Hans Brüggemann (16th cent.) and the tomb of Frederick I of Denmark.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Schleswig

 

a historical region on the southern Jutland Peninsula, north of the Eider River. In the Middle Ages, Schleswig became an object of contention between the Frankish (and later German) kings and the rulers of Denmark. Beginning in the early 12th century it was governed by Danish princes holding the title of duke. In 1386, as a Danish Iehn, Schleswig passed to the German nobility of Holstein County.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Schleswig

1. a fishing port in N Germany, in Schleswig-Holstein state: on an inlet of the Baltic. Pop.: 24 288 (2003 est.)
2. a former duchy, in the S Jutland Peninsula: annexed by Prussia in 1864; N part returned to Denmark after a plebiscite in 1920; S part forms part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
'Since 1912, the Danes have celebrated Valdemar Day, and since 1920, it is also a memorial day for the reunification of South Jutland, or North Schleswig, which had been German,' said Ambassador Holmboe.
1864: Denmark surrendered the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria following defeat in the Second Schleswig War: north Schleswig was returned to Denmark following a plebiscite in 1918.
Despite annual winters in Berlin, Nolde (born Hansen), a farmer's son, remained deeply rooted in his native soil in North Schleswig, a region linking the North and Baltic seas.
Despite strong initial opposition from Germany, the required plebiscites in north Schleswig, southern East Prussia, Upper Silesia were scheduled for March 1921.

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