Notwithstanding any other provision of law upon enactment of this act, no funds heretofore or hereafter appropriated may be obligated or expended to finance the involvement of United States military forces in hostilities in or over or from off the shores of North Vietnam
, South Vietnam, Laos or Cambodia unless specifically authorized hereafter by the Congress.
In the next 11 days and nights--with Christmas off--American planes dropped on North Vietnam
20,000 tons of bombs," amounting to "the explosive equivalent of the Nagasaki A-bomb."
The Pentagon Papers, leaked in 1971, exposed a covert program in North Vietnam
from 1954, a secret war deemed appropriate before US combat troops were committed openly.
Beijing supported Hanoi's decision in 1959 to launch a military struggle against the Diem regime, while in 1962 China gave its open support to North Vietnam
when Hanoi publicly denounced the United States as "a most serious" aggressor (p.
Similarly, Chen Jian focuses on the Sino-Vietnamese alliance during the French and American phases of the Indochina War, reminding readers that Beijing "dispatched as many as 320,000 Chinese engineering and air defence troops to North Vietnam
" between 1965 and 1970 (p.
Toronto doubled for North Vietnam
with war sequences shot down near the Port of Toronto.
As such, North Vietnam
's actions were said to be a challenge to American credibility.
However they might have started, the counterculture's '60s ended on a sour note, as "All You Need Is Love" segued into "Gimme Shelter." Martin Luther King's integrationist plea of non-violent resistance was discarded, even before his death, in favor of the armed insurrection of the Black Panthers; the "child of man" conceived at Woodstock was delivered stillborn at Altamont four months later; Students for a Democratic Society transmogrified into the bomb-throwing Weather Underground; the anti-draft movement turned virulently anti-American and uncritically embraced North Vietnam
as a model society; in a past-as-prologue moment, Charles Manson was hailed as a pop-culture icon for offing rich "pigs."
Indochina was now divided into four independent nations: Laos, Cambodia, Communist-controlled North Vietnam
, and South Vietnam, which remained under French protection.
prisoners of war, the United States was bombing the southern part of North Vietnam
bombimg vast swaths of South Vietnam (accelerated pacification"), bombing Laos and bombing Cambodia.
Johnson announced resumption of bombing raids on North Vietnam
. They had been suspended on Dec.
In the spring of 1968, Johnson ordered a partial halt to the bombing of North Vietnam
and announced that he would not seek reelection.