North-West Frontier Province


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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, formerly North-West Frontier Province, province and historic region (2017 provisional pop. 35,525,047), c.51,510 sq mi (133,410 sq km), NW Pakistan, bounded on the N and W by Afghanistan. Peshawar is the capital. An area of high, barren mountains dissected by fertile valleys, it is predominantly agricultural. Wheat is the chief crop; barley, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, and fruit trees are also cultivated, and livestock is raised. Irrigation works supplement the scanty rainfall. Mineral resources include marble, rock salt, gypsum, and limestone. There are some mountain forests. Food processing, cotton and wool milling, papermaking, and the production of cigarettes, textiles, chemicals, and fertilizer are the main industries; handicrafts also flourish. Pathans, or Pashtuns, constitute about two thirds of the population.

The region has been historically and strategically important due to passes leading into India, through which came invaders from central Asia. Alexander the Great conquered the region c.326 B.C., but his garrisons were unable to hold the region. In the early centuries A.D., Kanishka and his Kushan dynasty ruled the area. The Pathans arrived in the 7th cent., and by the 10th cent. conquerors from Afghanistan had made Islam the dominant religion. Under local Pathan rule from the late 12th cent. until Babur annexed it to his Mughal empire, the region paid nominal allegiance to the Mughals in the 16th and 17th cent. After Nadir Shah's invasion (1738), it became a feudatory of the Afghan Durrani kingdom. The Sikhs later held the area, which passed to Great Britain in 1849. The British maintained large military forces and paid heavy subsidies to pacify the Pathan resistance.

Britain separated the region from the Punjab of India in 1901 and constituted the North-West Frontier Province, whose people voted to join newly independent Pakistan in 1947. Following the absorption of the North-West Frontier Province into Pakistan, neighboring Afghanistan engendered the Pushtunistan Controversy (see Afghanistan). From 1955 to 1970 the North-West Frontier Province was a section of the consolidated province of West Pakistan. In 1970, the region was once again granted provincial status.

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan caused over 3 million refugees to flee to the province. Peshawar became the military and political center of the Afghan anti-Soviet coalition. The Soviet withdrawal in 1989 raised hopes that the refugees would be repatriated. Although renewed factional fighting in 1992 threatened the process, all Afghan tented refugee camps were closed by 1995. The province was renamed Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2010; the change was unpopular with the province's non-Pashto-speaking minorities, especially the Hindkowans. In 2018 Pakistan enacted legislation and constitutional amendments that incorporated the largely Pathan Federally Administered Tribal Areas (see Tribal Areas) into the province, with full integration occuring by 2020.

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North-West Frontier Province

a province in N Pakistan between Afghanistan and Jammu and Kashmir: part of British India from 1901 until 1947; of strategic importance, esp for the Khyber Pass. Capital: Peshawar. Pop.: 20 170 000 (2003 est.). Area: 74 522 sq. km (28 773 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Some experts believe Osama bin Laden is hiding in lawless tribal territory somewhere in North-West Frontier Province.
"We found that tetanus was the predominant cause of neonatal deaths in North-West Frontier Province, where it caused 23 percent of deaths in the first month of life, and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, where it caused 36 percent of neonatal deaths," says Fikree.
PESHAWAR, March 20, 2010 (Frontier Star): The Provincial Motor Vehicles (North-West Frontier Province) Amendment Bill-2010 have been passed by the Provincial Assembly of NWFP and assented to by the Governor of the NWFP has been published as an Act of the Provincial Legislature of the NWFP.
Police were quoted by Geo TV as saying a suicide bomber blew himself up near a courthouse in the city, which is the capital of North-West Frontier Province.
"They take over Buner, then they roll into Mardan and that's the end of the game," the New York Times quoted a North-West Frontier Province law enforcement official as saying on condition of anonymity.
On Tuesday, the Taleban, which have claimed responsibility for the Wah bombing, killed 35 people in a suicide bombing at a hospital in the North-West Frontier Province town of Dera Ismail Khan.
The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall have been forced to pull out of a visit to Peshawar in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan today because of security fears.
The Foreign Office and Mr Bassey's employers last night confirmed that they had yet to be informed of any details of the hearing in Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province.
market of Peshawar city, capital of North-West Frontier Province (NWFP),
In terms of shelter, UNHCR is providing material support to build some 25,000 temporary homes for returnees in Malakand Division of the North-West Frontier Province. The agency may also provide similar help once people are able to return to areas such as South Waziristan and Bajaur Agency.
Pakistani sleuths have detained an Afghan citizen on the charge of spying for India and complicity in terrorist activities in the volatile northwest, a media report said on Sunday.<p>Badshah, alias Sharif, was allegedly involved in several criminal cases and funding sabotage activities in the various parts of the North-West Frontier Province, an English-language daily reported.
Residents in Peshawar said Badbair, known as a residential colony for Pakistan Air Force officials, is on the outskirts of the capital of North-West Frontier Province on the Peshawar-Kohat Road that has been infested by Pakistani Taliban militants.

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