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Northampton,city (1991 pop. 154,172) and district, Northamptonshire, central England, on the Nene River. The city of Northampton is the county seat. Shoemaking has long been the chief industry; engineering is second (roller bearings, earth-moving equipment, and motor vehicle components). The city was an important settlement of the Angles and of the Danes, and its Norman castle was the scene of sieges as well as parliaments from the 12th to the 14th cent. In 1460, Henry VI was defeated by the Yorkists in Northampton (see Roses, Wars of theRoses, Wars of the,
traditional name given to the intermittent struggle (1455–85) for the throne of England between the noble houses of York (whose badge was a white rose) and Lancaster (later associated with the red rose).
About the middle of the 15th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. ). In 1675 much of the town was destroyed by fire. Roman and ancient British relics are in the vicinity. The Church of St. Giles has a Norman doorway; All Saints' has a 14th-century tower; St. Peter's (12th cent.) has a Norman interior; and there is a Roman Catholic cathedral designed by A. W. Pugin (see under A. C. PuginPugin, Augustus Charles
, 1762–1832, English writer on medieval architecture, b. France. His writings and drawings furnished a mass of working material for the architects of the Gothic revival. Among them is Specimens of Gothic Architecture (2 vol., 1821–23).
..... Click the link for more information. ). The 12th-century St. Sepulchre's is one of the four round churches in England. St. John's Hospital was founded in 1138. One of the few remaining Eleanor Crosses (see Eleanor of CastileEleanor of Castile
, d.1290, queen consort of Edward I of England and daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile. At her marriage (1254) she brought to Prince Edward the territories of Ponthieu and Montreuil and claims to Gascony.
..... Click the link for more information. ) is near Northampton, at Hardingstone.
Northampton(nôrth'hămp`tən, nôr'thămp`tən), city (1990 pop. 29,289), seat of Hampshire co., W Mass., on the Connecticut River; inc. as a town 1656, as a city 1883. Brushes, wire, optical devices, and plastic products are made in Northampton. It is the seat of Smith College and Clarke School for the Deaf. President Calvin Coolidge was a former mayor of Northampton; his papers and mementos are preserved in the Forbes Library. Jonathan EdwardsEdwards, Jonathan,
1703–58, American theologian and metaphysician, b. East Windsor (then in Windsor), Conn. He was a precocious child, early interested in things scientific, intellectual, and spiritual.
..... Click the link for more information. was pastor there, and Sylvester GrahamGraham, Sylvester,
1794–1851, American reformer and Presbyterian minister, b. West Suffield, Conn. He advocated a vegetable diet as a cure for intemperance and the use of coarsely ground whole-wheat flour. Graham flour was named for him.
..... Click the link for more information. lived and is buried in the city. Historic Deerfield is nearby.
a city in Great Britain, on the Nene River. Population, 126,600 (1971). Northampton, a borough and county town of Northamptonshire, is a center of the shoe industry. Machinery for shoemaking is manufactured there, as are hoisting and transport machines, earthmovers, automobile and airplane parts, and radio-electronic equipment.