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Northumberland(nôrthŭm`bərlənd), county (1991 pop. 300,600), 2,019 sq mi (5,229 sq km), NE England; administratively, Northumberland is a unitary authority (since 2009). Northernmost of the English counties, it is separated from Scotland by the Cheviot Hills and the Tweed River, and borders on the North Sea. The terrain is level along the rugged coast line and hilly in the interior, where high moorlands alternate with fertile valleys. Other rivers are the Tyne, the Derwent, the Wansbeck, the Till, the Alno, and the Coquet. In the past the economy was dominated by coal mining, shipping, shipbuilding and repairing, and the production of heavy electrical machinery, but these have suffered a heavy decline. Sheep and cattle are raised.
Hadrian's WallHadrian's Wall,
ancient Roman wall, 73.5 mi (118.3 km) long, across the narrow part of the island of Great Britain from Wallsend on the Tyne River to Bowness at the head of Solway Firth. It was mainly built from c.A.D.
..... Click the link for more information. was built in Roman times. In the 6th cent. the Angles established themselves in the region, which later became the kingdom of NorthumbriaNorthumbria, kingdom of
, one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England. It was originally composed of two independent kingdoms divided by the Tees River, Bernicia (including modern E Scotland, Berwick, Roxburgh, E Northumberland, and Durham) and Deira (including the North and East
..... Click the link for more information. . The area suffered severely during the border wars between England and Scotland. In 1974, Northumberland was reorganized as a nonmetropolitan county; the small but populous and industrialized southeast (including Newcastle upon TyneNewcastle upon Tyne,
city and metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 199,064), NE England, on the Tyne River. The city is an important shipping and trade center. The famous coal-shipping industry began in the 13th cent.; coal, however, was exceeded by wool exports until the 16th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. ) became part of the metropolitan county of Tyne and WearTyne and Wear,
former metropolitan county, NE England. Created in the 1974 local government reorganization, the county embraced the Newcastle upon Tyne conurbation and comprised five metropolitan districts (metropolitan boroughs): Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, South
..... Click the link for more information. (abolished as a unit of local government in 1986).
a county in the extreme northeastern part of England, along the North Sea coast, in the basins of the Tyne and Tweed rivers. Area, 5,200 sq km. Population, 794,900 (1971). In 1974 the southeastern part of Northumberland, including the county seat, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was made part of the new county of Tyne and Wear. Northumberland is part of the northeast economic region of England. There is coal mining, lumbering, and animal husbandry (sheep and cattle). Vegetables are grown in the Cheviot Hills and the spurs of the Pennines.