Northern Caucasus Soviet Republic

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Northern Caucasus Soviet Republic


a republic proclaimed by the First Congress of Soviets of the Northern Caucasus in Ekaterinodar (now Krasnodar) on July 7, 1918, and proclaimed in a speech by G. K. Ordzhonikidze, extraordinary commissar of southern Russia.

The Northern Caucasus Soviet Republic was founded to consolidate Soviet power and unify the forces of the working people during the Civil War and military intervention (1918–20). A part of the RSFSR, it united the Kuban’-Black Sea, Terek, and Stavropol’ Soviet republics. The Congress of Soviets of the Northern Caucasus passed resolutions to put into effect the decrees of the government of the RSFSR, to establish a competent army, to provide food to the central areas of the country, and to intensify the struggle against the counterrevolution. The congress elected the republic’s Central Executive Committee (with the Bolshevik A. I. Rubin as chairman), which in turn established the Revolutionary Military Council of the Northern Caucasus.

The republic was weakened by the offensive of Denikin’s White forces in the Kuban’ and Stavropol’ areas, by kulak revolts in the Terek region, and by the resistance of the Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks to the consolidation of the dictatorship of the proletariat. When Denikin’s forces occupied Ekaterinodar on Aug. 17, 1918, the republic’s Central Executive Committee moved to Piatigorsk. On Oct. 21, 1918, the adventurist Sorokin, who was in command of the Soviet troops in the Northern Caucasus, ordered several leaders of the republic to be shot, including Rubin and V. Krainii (M. I. Shneider-man), chairman of the Northern Caucasus Regional Committee of the RCP (B). The Second (Extraordinary) Congress of Soviets of the Northern Caucasus was held on Oct. 28, 1918, in the stanitsa (large cossack village) of Nevinnomysskaia. It formed a new central executive committee of the republic. By the end of 1918, when a substantial part of its territory was seized by White forces, the republic in fact ceased to exist. In December 1918 the Presidium of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee passed a resolution dissolving the Northern Caucasus Soviet Republic.


Bor’ba za Sovetskuiu vlast’ na Kubani v 1917–1920 gg.: Sb. dokumentov imaterialov. Krasnodar, 1957.
Razgon, I. Ordzhonikidze i Kirov i bor’ba za vlast’ Sovetov na Severnom Kavkaze, 1917–1920gg. Moscow, 1941.
Etenko, L. A. Bol’shevistskie organizatsii Dona i Severnogo Kavkaza v bor’be za vlast’ Sovetov. Rostov-on-Don, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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