Northern Expedition

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Northern Expedition,

in modern Chinese history, the military campaign by which the KuomintangKuomintang
[Chin.,=national people's party] (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party. Sung Chiao-jen organized the party in 1912, under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Revolutionary Alliance.
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 party overthrew the warlordwarlord,
in modern Chinese history, autonomous regional military commander. In the political chaos following the death (1916) of republican China's first president and commander in chief, Yüan Shih-kai, central authority fell to the provincial military governors and
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-backed Beijing government and established a new government at Nanjing. At the outset of the campaign in July, 1926, the Kuomintang controlled only Guangdong and Guangxi provs. It was allied with the smaller Communist party and was receiving aid from the Soviet Union. Communist activists spread out across SE China, fomenting strikes and thereby weakening the enemy's rear. By Mar., 1927, the Kuomintang armies (swelled by the defection of intact enemy units) had pushed back the warlord armies of Wu P'ei-fuWu P'ei-fu
, 1874–1939, Chinese general and political leader. He had a distinguished military career under the Ch'ing dynasty and was an important figure in the republic. For the most part Wu supported Yüan Shih-k'ai during his presidency.
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 and Sun Ch'uan-fang and had taken all of SE China including the economic centers of Wuhan and Shanghai. At this point, a struggle broke out between the right-wing Kuomintang commander in chief, Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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, and the left-wing-controlled provisional government at Wuhan under Wang Ching-weiWang Ching-wei
, 1883–1944, Chinese revolutionary and political leader. A supporter of Sun Yat-sen, Wang was sentenced (1910) to life imprisonment for attempting to assassinate the regent of China.
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. Arguing that Communist activities were socially and economically disruptive and would slow the primary task of political unification under the Kuomintang, Chiang launched a purge of Communists. When he was stripped of command (Apr., 1927), Chiang formed a rival regime at Nanjing. Finally, in July, 1927, the Wuhan government also broke with the Communists, and in Feb., 1928, the two factions reunited at Nanjing under Chiang's leadership. The Kuomintang renewed the offensive against the remaining northern forces (notably the army of Chang Tso-linChang Tso-lin
, 1873–1928, Chinese general. Chang was of humble birth. As the leader of a unit of Manchurian militia he assisted (1904–5) the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War. He held various military posts under the Chinese republic.
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). Beijing was taken by the Kuomintang in June, 1928, and the national government was moved to Nanjing.


See H. R. Isaacs, The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution (2d rev. ed. 1966); C. M. Wilbur, The Nationalist Revolution in China 1923–28 (1985).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Among those events are the May Thirtieth Movement of 1925, when police opened fire on protesters in Shanghai's International Settlement; the Northern Expedition of 1926-27; and the April 12 Incident of 1927, in which Nationalist forces in Shanghai cracked down on Communist organizations, resulting in the breakdown of the First United Front.
Bown's book effectively represents a biography of the Dane Vitus Bering--Ivan Ivanovich Bering (1681-1741), as he was known in Russia--whose main claim to fame was two expeditions, the First Kamchatka Expedition (1725-30) and the Great Northern Expedition or Second Kamchatka Expedition (1733-43).
In 1926 Xie entered the Central Academy of Military and Political Studies in the Women Students Brigade (the academy was founded by the Northern Expedition army which in turn was sustained by a coalition between the nationalist Kuomintang [KMT] and the Communist Party of China [CCP] [see Lee, Stefanowska, Wiles 227-29]).
Join the Anchorage Museum on a Northern expedition. Expedition attire, gourmet provisions and a virtual journey to the Pole set the stage for this special evening.
But neither of those factors will dampen spirits, on what is forecast to be a soggy northern expedition for the final two matches at Chester-le-Street and then Old Trafford.
The Northern Expedition, which resulted in the partial re-unification of China, also known as Northern March, began from the KMT's power base in Guangdong province.
Try the newest ship, the cruise line-worthy Northern Expedition.
In fragile alliance with the fledgling Communist Party, the Nationalist Party was conducting a northern expedition against warlords whose internecine battles had divided China and increased its vulnerability to foreign powers.
What Bergere provides is a careful placing of the man and career in the context of his time--from Boxer Rebellion, 1911 Revolution, May Fourth Movement of 1919, to the Northern Expedition. The result is a remarkably coherent narrative and reevaluation of China's political history from the 1880s through the 1920s, which can be usefully employed in the classroom as a text.
I also felt the author overstates the degree to which scholars of post 1949 China neglect the Imperial inheritance, and found it difficult to agree that "Most specialists argue that the Northern Expedition of the Nationalist Party in 1926 reunited the country, making the succeeding decade from 1927 to 1937 the only period between 1911 and 1949 that the country was united" (p.
As the Northern Expedition developed in 1926-27, the party moved into the countryside and used the pre-existing peasant Red Spears organization to instigate rural revolution.

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