Northumberland


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Northumberland

(nôrthŭm`bərlənd), county (1991 pop. 300,600), 2,019 sq mi (5,229 sq km), NE England; administratively, Northumberland is a unitary authority (since 2009). Northernmost of the English counties, it is separated from Scotland by the Cheviot Hills and the Tweed River, and borders on the North Sea. The terrain is level along the rugged coast line and hilly in the interior, where high moorlands alternate with fertile valleys. Other rivers are the Tyne, the Derwent, the Wansbeck, the Till, the Alno, and the Coquet. In the past the economy was dominated by coal mining, shipping, shipbuilding and repairing, and the production of heavy electrical machinery, but these have suffered a heavy decline. Sheep and cattle are raised.

Hadrian's WallHadrian's Wall,
ancient Roman wall, 73.5 mi (118.3 km) long, across the narrow part of the island of Great Britain from Wallsend on the Tyne River to Bowness at the head of Solway Firth. It was mainly built from c.A.D.
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 was built in Roman times. In the 6th cent. the Angles established themselves in the region, which later became the kingdom of NorthumbriaNorthumbria, kingdom of
, one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England. It was originally composed of two independent kingdoms divided by the Tees River, Bernicia (including modern E Scotland, Berwick, Roxburgh, E Northumberland, and Durham) and Deira (including the North and East
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. The area suffered severely during the border wars between England and Scotland. In 1974, Northumberland was reorganized as a nonmetropolitan county; the small but populous and industrialized southeast (including Newcastle upon TyneNewcastle upon Tyne,
city and metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 199,064), NE England, on the Tyne River. The city is an important shipping and trade center. The famous coal-shipping industry began in the 13th cent.; coal, however, was exceeded by wool exports until the 16th cent.
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) became part of the metropolitan county of Tyne and WearTyne and Wear,
former metropolitan county, NE England. Created in the 1974 local government reorganization, the county embraced the Newcastle upon Tyne conurbation and comprised five metropolitan districts (metropolitan boroughs): Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, South
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 (abolished as a unit of local government in 1986).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Northumberland

 

a county in the extreme northeastern part of England, along the North Sea coast, in the basins of the Tyne and Tweed rivers. Area, 5,200 sq km. Population, 794,900 (1971). In 1974 the southeastern part of Northumberland, including the county seat, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was made part of the new county of Tyne and Wear. Northumberland is part of the northeast economic region of England. There is coal mining, lumbering, and animal husbandry (sheep and cattle). Vegetables are grown in the Cheviot Hills and the spurs of the Pennines.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Northumberland

1
1st Duke of, title of John Dudley. 1502--53, English statesman and soldier, who governed England (1549--53) during the minority of Edward VI. His attempt (1553) to gain the throne for his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, led to his execution

Northumberland

2
the northernmost county of England, on the North Sea: hilly in the north (the Cheviots) and west (the Pennines), with many Roman remains, notably Hadrian's Wall; shipbuilding, coal mining. Administrative centre: Morpeth. Pop.: 309 200 (2003 est.). Area: 5032 sq. km (1943 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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On 28 April 1489, Henry Percy, fourth earl of Northumberland, was murdered at Cocklodge in Yorkshire at a meeting convened to make public Henry VII's answer to local pleas for tax relief.
One might have wondered whether we needed another study of Northumberland, but David Loades's new book is quite different from that by Beer and is, therefore, welcome.
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