Northumberland, Henry Percy, 1st earl of

Northumberland, Henry Percy, 1st earl of,

1342–1408, English nobleman. He fought in France in the Hundred Years War, became warden of the Scottish Marches, and was a supporter of John WyclifWyclif, Wycliffe, Wickliffe, or Wiclif, John
, c.1328–1384, English religious reformer. A Yorkshireman by birth, Wyclif studied and taught theology and philosophy at Oxford.
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. Created earl of Northumberland by Richard II in 1377, he and his son Sir Henry PercyPercy, Sir Henry,
1366–1403, English nobleman, called Hotspur or Henry Hotspur; son of Henry Percy, 1st earl of Northumberland. In 1388 he participated in the famous battle of Otterburn, or Chevy Chase, against the Scots; he was captured but later ransomed, and he returned
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 (Hotspur) were engaged in constant warfare with the Scots. He was a leading supporter of Henry of Lancaster (Henry IV) in the usurpation of 1399, but with his brother, Thomas Percy, earl of WorcesterWorcester, Thomas Percy, earl of
, c.1344–1403, English nobleman; brother of Henry Percy, 1st earl of Northumberland. He served with considerable success in the wars in France and Spain, especially as admiral of the fleet of the north, a position to which he was appointed
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, and Hotspur, Northumberland revolted against the king in 1403. He submitted after the death of his son at the battle of Shrewsbury in the same year. By 1405, however, he was plotting again with Owen GlendowerOwen Glendower
, Welsh Owain Glyndwr, 1359?–1416?, Welsh national leader. A scion of the princes of Powys, he was also claimant through his mother to the lands of Rhys ap Gruffydd; he was thus one of the most powerful lords in Wales.
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 and, after fleeing to Scotland and France, invaded (1408) England from the north with the expectation of recruiting followers. He was slain and his forces were defeated at Bramham Moor.
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