Norwegian language


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Norwegian language,

member of the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-EuropeanIndo-European,
family of languages having more speakers than any other language family. It is estimated that approximately half the world's population speaks an Indo-European tongue as a first language.
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 family of languages. It is spoken by about 4 million people in Norway and another million in the other Scandinavian countries and North America. Norwegian is a daughter language of Old Norse (see Germanic languagesGermanic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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; NorseNorse,
another name for the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). The modern Norse languages—Danish, Faeroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish—all stem from an earlier
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 language). Today there are two official forms of Norwegian: bokmål [book language] and nynorsk [new Norwegian]. Bokmål, also called riksmål [national language] and Dano-Norwegian, was greatly influenced by Danish, which was the dominant language of officialdom when Norway was under Danish rule (1397–1814). The language of the cities, the official and professional classes, and literature, bokmål came to differ greatly from the Norwegian spoken by the common people. Since 1905, however, orthographical and grammatical reforms by the government have brought bokmål closer to the popular form of Norwegian. Nynorsk, also known as landsmål [country language], stems from the native Norwegian dialects that evolved from Old Norse (uninfluenced by Danish), and it is therefore very different from bokmål. Developed by Ivar Aasen, nynorsk was introduced by him in 1853 as part of a nationalistic desire to have a purely Norwegian language for the country. It is based on rural dialects and spoken principally in rural areas. Both bokmål and nynorsk are employed by the government, the schools, and the mass media, but bokmål is by far the more widely used of the two, especially in education and literature. Some efforts have been made to fuse the two forms of Norwegian into one common Norwegian tongue called samnorsk [common Norwegian], and there is hope that this can be accomplished. Norwegian grammar is fairly simple. The form of the noun is changed only to indicate possession and the plural, and personal inflection of the verb has been discarded. Like Swedish, Norwegian uses pitch accents, but to a lesser degree. The pitch accents give the language a musical quality and are sometimes employed to distinguish the meanings of homonyms. Norwegian employs the Roman alphabet, which was introduced in Norway in the 11th cent. and to which three characters, æ, ø, and å, have been added.

Bibliography

See K. G. Chapman, Icelandic-Norwegian Linguistic Relationships (1962); E. I. Haugen and K. G. Chapman, Spoken Norwegian (1964); E. I. Haugen, Language Conflict and Language Planning: The Case of Modern Norwegian (1966); R. Strandskogen, Norwegian Grammar (1987).

References in periodicals archive ?
no is an online school that offers complete, web-based Norwegian language courses with tutoring.
13, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- For those interested in the Norwegian language for reasons of culture, travel, work or just general knowledge, Campus Online has Norwegian language courses designed specifically for their needs.
We selected Saba Learning for its depth of functionality, usability, and support for the Norwegian language which will enable us to provide personalized, just in time training to our employees," said Kjell Espen Skjaevestad, Training Manager at Braathens.
All solutions and deliveries must be available on the Norwegian language.
The pair made their official recorded debut with a Norwegian language children's album, released before either had hit their teens.
Announcement of competition: Work Alpharetta Norwegian language training and work experience for 20 participants.
We had to deal with the Norwegian language and we received the code in pieces, yet we were still able to complete the project within approximately 15 days.
INTERSHOP Online is also available in a German, French and Norwegian language version, with a Korean version to follow.
All documents for this procurement is only prepared on Norwegian language.
Euromedia plans a simultaneous release of the first two products, Wild Africa and Exploring The Lost Maya, in Finnish, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian language versions providing Euromedia and Sumeria with wide exposure in this important European market area.
Notice of Contract Award: Nurse with Norwegian language training
Announcement of competition: Nurse with Norwegian language training

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