Norwegian language

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Norwegian language,

member of the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-EuropeanIndo-European,
family of languages having more speakers than any other language family. It is estimated that approximately half the world's population speaks an Indo-European tongue as a first language.
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 family of languages. It is spoken by about 4 million people in Norway and another million in the other Scandinavian countries and North America. Norwegian is a daughter language of Old Norse (see Germanic languagesGermanic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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; NorseNorse,
another name for the North Germanic, or Scandinavian, group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). The modern Norse languages—Danish, Faeroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish—all stem from an earlier
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 language). Today there are two official forms of Norwegian: bokmål [book language] and nynorsk [new Norwegian]. Bokmål, also called riksmål [national language] and Dano-Norwegian, was greatly influenced by Danish, which was the dominant language of officialdom when Norway was under Danish rule (1397–1814). The language of the cities, the official and professional classes, and literature, bokmål came to differ greatly from the Norwegian spoken by the common people. Since 1905, however, orthographical and grammatical reforms by the government have brought bokmål closer to the popular form of Norwegian. Nynorsk, also known as landsmål [country language], stems from the native Norwegian dialects that evolved from Old Norse (uninfluenced by Danish), and it is therefore very different from bokmål. Developed by Ivar Aasen, nynorsk was introduced by him in 1853 as part of a nationalistic desire to have a purely Norwegian language for the country. It is based on rural dialects and spoken principally in rural areas. Both bokmål and nynorsk are employed by the government, the schools, and the mass media, but bokmål is by far the more widely used of the two, especially in education and literature. Some efforts have been made to fuse the two forms of Norwegian into one common Norwegian tongue called samnorsk [common Norwegian], and there is hope that this can be accomplished. Norwegian grammar is fairly simple. The form of the noun is changed only to indicate possession and the plural, and personal inflection of the verb has been discarded. Like Swedish, Norwegian uses pitch accents, but to a lesser degree. The pitch accents give the language a musical quality and are sometimes employed to distinguish the meanings of homonyms. Norwegian employs the Roman alphabet, which was introduced in Norway in the 11th cent. and to which three characters, æ, ø, and å, have been added.


See K. G. Chapman, Icelandic-Norwegian Linguistic Relationships (1962); E. I. Haugen and K. G. Chapman, Spoken Norwegian (1964); E. I. Haugen, Language Conflict and Language Planning: The Case of Modern Norwegian (1966); R. Strandskogen, Norwegian Grammar (1987).

References in periodicals archive ?
In Norway, on the other hand, the focus is more on NRK being the only media company that is actively working to preserve Norwegian language and culture.
The data from this study illustrate that AI students struggle to produce and publish texts in the Norwegian language as required within their study programme.
Gradually the Norwegian language was forced to give way to Danish.
A Norwegian language version of the site was launched in February this year and is available at http://www.
True, the Norwegian language uses different words to denote heterosexual wedlock (ekteskap) and its gay counterpart (partnerskap)--but sometimes (as in my residency papers) it uses ekteskap for both.
Olaf as a teacher of Norwegian language and literature and the history of Norwegian immigration.
In the Norwegian Language Council's dictionary Nyord i Norsk 1945-1975 (New Words in Norwegian 1945-1975), there is an entry for the word Jante, defined as "a person who is afraid of standing out in the crowd.
Teaching offer shall include interdisciplinary approach in other subjects such as science, mathematics and language training for pupils who have poor Norwegian language skills.
Flyktningdugnad", or "refugee volunteer", is second on the top-10 list of the Norwegian Language Council, and "vluchtelingenhek" ("refugee shelter") has been shortlisted by the Dutch dictionary group Van Dale (the voting is still going on).
Moreover, the quote from the NRK website shows that the launch of NRK Super was surrounded by PSB rhetoric referring to aims to reflect Norwegian language, culture and identity, but also to reflect cultural diversity:
It is common among young Norwegian singers to change the vocabulary and the grammar in Danish texts to a certain extent in order to fit the modern Norwegian language better.

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