The seminal fluid of male bees can kill Nosema
apis, therefore actually protecting queens.
algerae: infection of the white mouse by a mosquito parasite.
Crop pollination exposes honey bees to pesticides which alters their susceptibility to the gut pathogen Nosema
Interactions between nosema
microspores and a neonicotinoid weaken honeybees (Apis meilifera).
Chai et al., "Electrochemical immunosensor for detecting the spore wall protein of Nosema
bombycis based on the amplification of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme concatamers functionalized Pt at Pd nanowires," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol.
Fumagillin is an antibiotic isolated from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, which inhibits parasite development but shows some disadvantages: Nosema
spores (element infestation of bees) does not affect; residues in bee products (Botias, C.
Por ejemplo, las abejas como individuo adulto, expuestas a las variaciones medio ambientales y posibles residuos de pesticidas, pueden presentar micosis (Nosema
apis), que alteran desde su vuelo (Doselli et al., 2016; Fries, 2010; Goulson et al., 2015; Vanengelsdorp et al., 2009), capacidad polinizadora, hasta su reproduccion y desarrollo.
Other threats to bee colonies include American foulbrood (which attacks bee larvae), nosema
(which invades bees' intestinal tracts), and chalkbrood (which infests bees' guts, causing them to starve).
There has been substantial use of the naturally occurring fungus Metarhizium acridum (Driver and Milner) and the microsporidian Paranosema locustae (Canning) (formerly, Nosema
Preliminary study on a new pathogen (Nosema
glabripennis Zhang) parasitizing the long horned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.).
Add in a new parasitic disease called Nosema
apis, with neither symptoms nor a cure, and finally, the one that surprised almost everybody, there simply wasn't enough good food readily available for every bee in the bunch.
melasomae causing a disease of the poplar leaf beetle (Melasoma populi L., Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera).