Nottingham

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Nottingham,

city and unitary authority (1991 pop. 273,300), central England, on the Trent River. A center of rail and road transportation, the city's most important industries are the manufacture of lace, hosiery, cotton, and silk. The long-established textile industry greatly profited from the inventions of James HargreavesHargreaves, James
, 1720?–1778, English engineer. In 1762 he made an unsuccessful attempt to develop a machine for carding, a process preparatory to spinning, and in 1764 he invented the spinning jenny, which resulted in doubling production in the carding process.
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 and Richard ArkwrightArkwright, Sir Richard,
1732–92, English inventor. His construction of a machine for spinning, the water frame, patented in 1769, was an early step in the Industrial Revolution.
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. Cigarettes, bicycles, and pharmaceuticals are among Nottingham's many other products. The historic county seat of Nottinghamshire, the city became independent of the county in 1998.

In the 9th cent., Nottingham was one of the Danish Five Boroughs. In the 12th cent., much of it was destroyed by fire. Parliaments were held in Nottingham in 1334, 1337, and 1357. In 1642, Nottingham was the scene of Charles I unfurling his banner, marking the beginning of the civil war. Early in the 19th cent., LudditesLuddites,
name given to bands of workingmen in the industrial centers of England who rioted between 1811 and 1816. The uprisings began in Nottinghamshire, where groups of textile workers, in the name of a mythical figure called Ned Ludd, or King Ludd, destroyed knitting
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 were active in the city. The 17th-century castle overlooking the Trent River was burned in 1831 during Reform Bill riots. It was restored in 1878 and now houses an art museum. The earlier Norman castle on the same site was once the prison of David II of Scotland and the headquarters of Richard III before the battle of Bosworth Field.

Other features of interest are the council house (city hall), a Roman Catholic cathedral (designed by A. W. PuginPugin, Augustus Charles
, 1762–1832, English writer on medieval architecture, b. France. His writings and drawings furnished a mass of working material for the architects of the Gothic revival. Among them is Specimens of Gothic Architecture (2 vol., 1821–23).
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), the 16th-century grammar school (now a high school), the Univ. of Nottingham (1948), and St. Peter's Church, part of which dates from the 12th cent. According to tradition, Robin HoodRobin Hood,
legendary hero of 12th-century England who robbed the rich to help the poor. Chivalrous, manly, fair, and always ready for a joke, Robin Hood reflected many of the ideals of the English yeoman.
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 was born in Nottingham. William BoothBooth, William,
1829–1912, English religious leader, founder and first general of the Salvation Army, b. Nottingham. Originally a local preacher for the Wesleyan Methodists, he went (1849) to London and entered (1852) the ministry of the Methodist New Connexion Church, but
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, founder of the Salvation Army, was born there in 1829.

Nottingham

 

a city in Great Britain, on the Trent River. Until 1974, Nottingham was the county town of Nottinghamshire. Population, 299,800 (1971).

Nottingham is a large transportation junction and an important industrial center, with a long-established knitwear industry. The city is also known for its lace, clothing, tobacco, food-processing, and pharmaceuticals industries. Motorcycles and bicycles, medical and chemical equipment, machine tools, and instruments are produced. Nottingham has a university.

The layout of the city is relatively regular, with a rectangular square in the center. The architectural monuments of Nottingham include an 11th-century castle (reconstructed in the 17th and 19th centuries), the Church of St. Mary (late Gothic style, end of the 15th century), a town hall in the classical style (1789–91), and a county hall (1770–72, architect J. Gandon). The city’s parks include the Arboretum, Nottingham Forest, and Wollaton (with the famous mansion, Wollaton Hall).

REFERENCE

Gray, Duncan. Nottingham Through 500 Years, 2nd ed. [Nottingham] 1961.

Nottingham

1. a city in N central England, administrative centre of Nottinghamshire, on the River Trent: scene of the outbreak of the Civil War (1642); famous for its associations with the Robin Hood legend; two universities. Pop.: 249 584 (2001)
2. a unitary authority in N central England, in Nottinghamshire. Pop.: 273 900 (2003 est.). Area: 78 sq. km (30 sq. miles)
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