New Realism

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New Realism

 

a trend in contemporary bourgeois philosophy. New realism was influenced by the Scottish school as well as by F. Brentano, A. Meinong, E. Mach (Austria), and the early B. Russell.

The epistemological tenets of new realism were set forth by G. E. Moore in his article “The Refutation of Idealism” (1903) and were subsequently formulated into a specific doctrine in the United States by R. Perry, E. B. Holt, W. Montague, W. Marvin, E. Spaulding, and W. Pitkin, who in 1910 issued “The Program and First Platform of Six Realists.”

The cosmology of new realism was developed by S. Alexander, A. Whitehead, J. Smuts, and L. Morgan. It represented a variant of the metaphysical concept of development—the theory of emergent evolution. In the 1930’s, new realism declined in influence and was replaced by critical realism.

New realism criticized subjective idealism for reducing reality to the consciousness of the subject and rejected absolute idealism (F. Bradley), which identified reality with universal consciousness. New realism asserted the existence of object independent of subject. At the same time, it rejected materialism as a “dualistic” theory that supposedly regarded subject and object as absolute opposites. New realism developed the doctrine of epistemological monism.

New realism holds that the nature of being is neither material nor ideal. It is an aggregate of neutral elements that, depending on the situation, acquire either physical or mental significance. In cognition, the neutral object directly enters the consciousness of the subject, thereby becoming “mental.” However, when the object is not included in an epistemological situation, it appears as “physical.” However, the thesis of the direct inclusion of an object by consciousness does not make it possible to resolve the problem of the origin of false consciousness and contradicts the basic premise of new realism—the existence of reality independent of consciousness. Thus, new realism is essentially a variety of idealism.

REFERENCES

Bogomolov, A. S. Filosofiia anglo-amerikanskogo neorealizma. Moscow, 1962.
Lukanov, D. M. Gnoseologiia amerikanskogo “realizma.” Moscow, 1968.
Sovremennaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia. Moscow, 1972. Chapter 8.
The New Realism. New York, 1925.
Kremer, R. Le Néo-réalisme américain. Paris, 1920.
Evans, D. L. New Realism and Old Reality. Princeton, 1928.
Ray, B. Consciousness in Neo-realism. Oxford, 1935.
Boman, L. Criticism and Construction in the Philosophy of American New Realism. Stockholm, 1955. D. M. LUKANOV
References in periodicals archive ?
Carrick (art history, Carleton University, Canada) takes a revisionary look at the short-lived movement of Nouveau Realisme in 1960's France.
In those days, not only the SI, but also Britain's Independent Group, France's nouveau realisme, Germany's Capitalist Realism, and New York's neo-dadists (pop's parents) regularly juxtaposed disparate found imagery, whether painted or collaged).
The occasion marked a climax for the young Tinguely, a principal member of the French art movement Nouveau Realisme, which he formalized back in France later that year; Tinguely had arrived in New York some months earlier to set up a studio under the auspices of Peter Selz within the Buckminster Fuller dome then sprouting in the museum's garden.
La tomate, dans ce vers, a pratiquement annonce la mort du symbolisme bulgare et le retour a un nouveau realisme.
Reflecting the era's feverish pace of change, the art reproduced in the book's excellent plate section shows a startling range of styles, from late AbEx and Nouveau Realisme to Pop and Funk art, Minimalism, Conceptualism, and Earthworks.
N'hesitant pas a le rapprocher lui-meme du groupe [beaucoup moins que] Nouveau realisme [beaucoup plus grand que] qui a trouve une resonance evidente a l'echelle mondiale.
We can no longer just have that old Eurocentric art-historical narrative through, let's say, Abstract Expressionism, Pop, conceptualism, nouveau realisme.
Dossin outlines underlying cultural differences between French and American feminists as contributing to Saint-Phalle's own ambivalence, and suggests that her associations with French Nouveau Realisme and Neo-Dadaism separated her from an identification with women artists, ultimately affecting her full acknowledgement in feminist literature.
Well remembered as one of the nine signers of the 1960 Nouveau Realisme manifesto, Martial Raysse spent a good portion of the 1960s in New York City during the salad days of Pop art.
One of the founders of Nouveau Realisme along with Yves Klein and Pierre Restany, this show features Villegle's affiches lacerees, or torn posters, ripped down in the streets of Paris between 1964 and 1991 (25 April-30 May).
The French movement known as Nouveau Realisme first came to New York City--thanks in no small part to Pierre Restany's ego maniacal, chauvinistic rhetoric and superlative networking abilities--with William Seitz's "The Art of Assemblage" at the Museum of Modern Art in 1961 and Sidney Janis's gallery show "The New Realists" the following year.
But it was with the artists of the Nouveau Realisme movement that Sachs forged his first artistic friendships, which in turn launched his career as a passionate collector.