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in 16th- and 17th-century Russia, a young Cossack or a youth from either the dvoriane or the deti boiarskie (two segments of the Muscovite gentry) who entered military service at the age of 15–18 and was enrolled in the desiatni (military census documents) for the first time.
By extension, the term novik was also applied to dvoriane who had already performed state service for a number of years but had not yet received their pay in money and land and to those who had not served at all. Noviki were registered in the desiatni according to separate lists for courtiers and provincial gentry. Within these lists they were further categorized by birth and degree, property status, and personal qualities.
the name of two ships in the Russian Navy.
(1) The armored-deck cruiser Novik was commissioned in 1901. It had a displacement of 3,080 tons. Its weapons were six 120-mm and eight small-caliber guns and five torpedo launchers. Its crew numbered 328, and its speed was 25 knots (46.3 km/hr). The Novik waged vigorous and successful actions during the defense of Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. After the battle in the Yellow Sea on July 28 (Aug. 10), 1904, it broke out into the Pacific Ocean, circled Japan from the east, and reached Sakhalin. On August 7 (20) it engaged in a battle with the Japanese cruiser Tsushima in Aniva Gulf and forced the cruiser to withdraw. However, the Novik sustained heavy damage and in view of the impossibility of continuing battle with another approaching Japanese cruiser, it was sunk by its own crew.
(2) The destroyer Novik was commissioned in 1913. It had a displacement of 1,260 tons. Its weapons were four 100-mm guns, four double-tube torpedo launchers, and 50 mines. Its crew numbered 130. The Novik became a model for the construction of destroyers in Russia and other countries. The first destroyer to use liquid fuel, it traveled at speeds up to 37.3 knots (69 km/hr). During World War I (1914–18) it took part in several naval battles and mine-laying operations in the Baltic Sea. After the October Revolution of 1917, it was modernized (1922–27) and, renamed Iakov Sverdlov, became part of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. It took part in combat actions at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War (1941–45). On Aug. 28, 1941, it hit a mine during a crossing from Tallinn to Kronstadt and sank.
G. F. SILAEV