In the mid-century, and against the backdrop of the Great Reforms, one of the most important tasks of "learned Jews" was to carry out "inspection trips." Such investigational trips took place in a number of provinces, including Mogilev, Novorossiia
, Bessarabiia, Ekaterinoslav, Poltava, and Kiev provinces.
But by the time Russian Mennonites (along with other German, Romanian, and Greek colonists) arrived at the turn of the century, tsarist policy had shifted to settle foreign colonists and state peasants in the territory gained from the Ottoman Empire (NovoRossiia) in order to foster agricultural production.
No longer was NovoRossiia the heartland, although its schools and social institutions still served as training centers.
While returning from active duty Zagriazhskii encountered at Kremenchug Aleksandra Iazykova, the very pregnant wife of a Moscow friend and newly appointed governor of Novorossiia
Nikolai Danilovich Iazykov.
(9) Catherine the Great contemplated Hellenism and various Greek projects as her viceroy Grigorii Potemkin prepared newly acquired Crimea for integration into a vast "New Russian" domain (Novorossiia
) across the Pontic steppe.
He was attracted by the free land that the Imperial Russian government was distributing in Novorossiia (New Russia), the region bordering the northwestern coast of the Black Sea, to attract settlement, as well as the commercial opportunities of the city itself.
Bartolomeo, the sole surviving owner at that point, concentrated on the industrial and banking side of the family business, which at that time comprised the Anatra Flour Mill, the Odessa Discount Bank, a share in Bessarabian-Tauride Bank, and significant real estate holdings in Odessa and other cities in Novorossiia. Thus, under Bartolomeo, the firm joined the increasing number of Odessan family firms that moved away from export-import trade into manufacturing and banking as their main source of revenue.
Vorontsov, governor-general of Novorossiia and namestnik of Bessarabia, was involved in the imperial efforts to increase production; he was also a patron of specifically southern Russian high-quality wine production throughout the 1820s and 1830s and assured the colony of his ongoing support.
Among a great many encouragements, land and vines were distributed for this purpose as a part of the colonizing effort all over the newly acquired territories--Crimea, Novorossiia, and then Bessarabia.
The opening of southern black soil regions in New Russia (Novorossiia
) provided some relief but was only a palliative for the land shortage.
The 18th century introduced even more: a newly declared "nobility" and a newly ordered urban class; German Junkers and enserfed Estonian and Latvian peasants; Finnish peasants; German, Serbian, Romanian, and other colonists in Novorossiia
; all manner of Cossacks, each group different--on the Don, in Zaporozh 'e, on "the Line" from Orenburg to Semipalatinsk, on the Terek and Black Sea steppe; Poles, Lithuanians, Jews, Crimeans: the list goes on.