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a city under krai jurisdiction in Krasnodar Krai, RSFSR. Port on the ice-free Tsemes (Novorissiisk) Bay of the Black Sea. Railroad station. Population, 143,000 (1974; 17,000 in 1897; 95,000 in 1939; 93,000 in 1959; 133,000 in 1970).
Novorossiisk was founded in 1838 as a fortification on the site of the Turkish fortress of Sujuk-Kale (founded 1722), which was destroyed by Russian troops in 1812. In 1866 the city became the center of Black Sea Okrug, and from 1896 to 1920 it was the administrative center of Black Sea Province. In 1879 deposits of raw cement were discovered in Novorossiisk, and in 1882 the first cement plant was put into operation. A Marxist group was organized in Novorossiisk in 1892; Social Democratic circles were later organized there. In December 1905, after an armed uprising, power passed into the hands of the Soviet of Workers’ Deputies.
Soviet power was established in Novorossiisk on Dec. 1 (14), 1917. On June 18, 1918, part of the Black Sea Fleet was sunk in Tsemes Bay to prevent the ships from falling into the hands of Imperial Germany. On Aug. 26, 1918, the city was captured by White Guards and interventionists. It was liberated by the Red Army on Mar. 27, 1920.
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, a large part of the city was seized by fascist German troops. On the night of Feb. 3, 1943, a landing force of sailors disembarked on Cape Myskhako (later Malaia Zemlia) south of Novorossiisk, capturing the beachhead, which they held for 225 days, until the city’s complete liberation on Sept. 16, 1943. The fascist German invaders caused extensive damage to Novorossiisk. The city was rebuilt, and new residential areas were constructed.
Because of the steadfastness, bravery, and heroism demonstrated by the defenders of Novorossiisk during the Great Patriotic War, the city was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War First Class on May 7, 1966. On Sept. 14, 1973, in commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the defeat of the fascist troops in the defense of the Northern Caucasus, Novorossiisk was awarded the honorary title of hero-city, the Order of Lenin, and the Gold Star medal.
Novorossiisk is an important center of the cement industry. Other local industries include metalworking (the Krasnyi Dvigatel’ Plant; railroad-car and ship repair, machine foundry, and metal products plants), building materials (the Kommunar Plant and plants producing asbestos-cement and reinforced-concrete products), and food processing (a flour-milling combine, a dairy, a brewery that also produces Pepsi Cola, and a fish-processing plant). The Chernomorets furniture factory is also located in Novorossiisk.
The city’s educational institutions include the general-engineering department of the Krasnodar Polytechnic Institute, the correspondence department of the Odessa Naval Engineering Institute, an industrial technicum, a municipal construction technicum, a medical school, and a music school. Novorossiisk has a museum of history and local lore, a planetarium, and a people’s amateur theater.
REFERENCESNovorossiisk i ego port, vol. 2. St. Petersburg, 1890.
Ul’ko, G. Oktiabr’ na Chernomor’e. Krasnodar, 1957.
Monastyrskii, F. Zemlia, omytaia krov’iu. Moscow, 1962.
Andriushchenko, V. A., V. I. Klepikov, and G. M. Pogibel’. Novorossiisk. Krasnodar, 1968.