Novorossiisk Cement Plants

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Novorossiisk Cement Plants

 

cement plants of the Novorostsement Combine, located in Novorossiisk and at the Gaiduk and Tonnel’naia railroad stations in Krasnodar Krai. The cement plants make use of the world’s largest deposit of marl. The combine comprises the Proletarii, Oktiabr’, Pervomaiskii, and Pobeda Oktiabria plants. The first Novorossiisk cement plant, Zvezda (now Proletarii), was founded by the Black Sea Portland Cement Society in 1882. In 1898 the Tsep’ Plant (now called Oktiabr’) began operation. Before 1912 several other cement plants—Solntse, Beton, Titan, Skala, Pobeda, Orel, and Atlas—were built near Novorossiisk. By 1917 a total of ten low-capacity plants, equipped with primitive shaft furnaces (constructed by the Dietsch and Schneider firms), in which natural marl was roasted, were in operation.

Workers at the Novorossiisk cement plants were active in the struggle to overthrow tsarist autocracy. They also helped defeat White Guard bands and took part in the establishment of Soviet power.

After the Civil War of 1918–20 the plants were rebuilt and expanded. Shops were reconstructed, and equipment was modernized. In 1940 the output of cement was 2.5 times that of 1913. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 the plants were destroyed, and a considerable part of Novorossiisk was temporarily occupied by the enemy. The heroic defense of the Oktiabr’ Plant lasted almost a year. After the krai was liberated, the plants were rebuilt, and new technological equipment was introduced. By the early 1970’s, 61 antiquated furnaces were replaced by 16 modern rotary furnaces and four modernized, automated shaft furnaces.

In 1973 the combine produced 4,450,000 tons of high-quality cement (117 times more than in 1913 and 4.5 times more than in 1940). The average grade of cement in 1973 totaled 453 kg/cm2, as opposed to 321 kg/cm2 in 1940. In 1973 cement production per worker in the combine as a whole was 4.8 times greater than in 1950 and exceeded the average for the entire cement industry of the USSR. The combine was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1958.

P. F. LOPUKHOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.