Noyce, Robert Norton

Noyce, Robert Norton

(nois), 1927–90, American engineer, inventor, and entrepeneur, b. Burlington, Iowa.; grad. Grinnell College (B.A., 1949), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1953). Early in his career he worked with William ShockleyShockley, William Bradford,
1910–89, American physicist, b. London. He graduated from the California Institute of Technology (B.S., 1932) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D., 1936). After directing antisubmarine research for the U.S.
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 on specialized versions of the transistortransistor,
three-terminal, solid-state electronic device used for amplification and switching. It is the solid-state analog to the triode electron tube; the transistor has replaced the electron tube for virtually all common applications.
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. In 1957 Noyce and several other engineers founded Fairchild Semiconductor, where in 1959 he developed the integrated circuitintegrated circuit
(IC), electronic circuit built on a semiconductor substrate, usually one of single-crystal silicon. The circuit, often called a chip, is packaged in a hermetically sealed case or a nonhermetic plastic capsule, with leads extending from it for input, output,
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 (a feat duplicated independently a few months earlier by Jack KilbyKilby, Jack St. Clair,
1923–2005, American electrical engineer, b. Jefferson City, Mo., B.S. Univ. of Illinois, 1947, M.S. Univ. of Wisconsin, 1950. In 1958, Kilby began working for Texas Instruments (TI), which he had joined in order to devote himself to developing
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). In 1968 he and Fairchild colleague Gordon MooreMoore, Gordon Earle,
1929– American engineer, inventor, and entrepreneur, b. San Francisco, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology, 1954. He joined (1956) Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, where he worked with William Shockley, the co-inventor of the transistor.
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 were among the cofounders of Intel Corp.; Noyce became president and chief executive officer. There he was instrumental in the development of the first microprocessormicroprocessor,
integrated circuit containing the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to interpret and execute instructions from a computer program. When combined with other integrated circuits that provide storage for data and programs, often on a single
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 (1971) and various computer chips. Noyce was one of Silicon Valley's earliest multimillionaires.

Bibliography

See L. Berlin, The Man behind the Microchip (2005).

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