Nuclear Charge


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Nuclear Charge

 

a device consisting of a supply of nuclear energy, locked within certain substances, and the equipment for the rapid release of the energy to set off a nuclear explosion.

There are two types of nuclear charges: atomic and hydrogen. The action of the first type (atomic bomb) is based on the release of nuclear energy upon the fission of certain heavy nuclei (235U or 239Pu; see). The action of the second type (hydrogen bomb) is based on the thermonuclear reaction of the fusion of helium nuclei from lighter nuclei (deuterium, tritium, or their mixtures with 6Li), in the course of which approximately four times the energy is released than upon the decay of the same amount of fissionable material (seeTHERMONUCLEAR REACTION).

Nuclear charges with a power ranging from a few kilotons to several tens of megatons of TNT equivalent have been tested. The power of a nuclear charge is determined both by the amount of fissionable material or hydrogen isotopes contained in the charge and by the design aspects that create the conditions in which the maximum amount of material is brought together to initiate a nuclear reaction. An important element in the design of a nuclear charge is the initiating charge, which creates supercritical conditions for the fissionable material in an atomic charge, and the required temperature in a hydrogen charge (in the latter case, an atomic charge is used as the initiating charge). Structurally, the nuclear charge is enclosed in a steel casing; its total mass together with the detonation devices usually ranges from a few hundred kg to several metric tons. When it is used as a nuclear weapon, it is incorporated into an aerial bomb, the nuclear warhead of a missile, a torpedo, or other projectile for delivery to the target.

Nuclear charges are also used for peaceful purposes, for example, in various large-scale blasting operations and in the mining of minerals.

References in periodicals archive ?
Returning again to the scientific subject of our nuclear physical examination, we point out that, from the practical application of such a scheme of detonation in a nuclear bomb of a plutonium nuclear charge, one nuclear <<fizzle>> was obtained [11].
where E is the electron energy in keV, Z is the atomic number, [m.sub.0][C.sup.2] [approximately equal to] 511 key, and [alpha] is an effective nuclear charge screening factor,
Goldanskii told that the "isthmus of stability" may be a region where isotopes of the elements bearing nuclear charges 114, 126, and even 164 may be located.
It was established in 1913, in full conformity with the hypothesis of Van den Brook, that the atomic numbers of the chemical elements directly reflect the nuclear charge of their atoms.
Moseley showed that if the elements were arranged in order of increasing nuclear charge, no element would have to be placed out of order.
Theory predicts that the energy of the positrons should increase as the 20th power of the nuclear charge, so with this combination they expected a fivefold increase in positron energy.
The method of rectangular hyperbolas is developed for the first time, by which a means for estimating the upper bound of the Periodic Table is established in calculating that its last element has an atom mass of 411.663243 and an atomic number (the nuclear charge) of 155.
And if in 2007, for example, 1,100 metric tons of cocaine were smuggled from South America without interdiction, we cannot dismiss the possibility of Iranian nuclear charges of 500 pounds or less ending up in Manhattan or on Pennsylvania Avenue.