nuclear power

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nuclear power

power, esp electrical or motive, produced by a nuclear reactor

nuclear power

[′nü·klē·ər ′pau̇·ər]
Power whose source is nuclear fission or fusion.

Nuclear power

Power derived from fission or fusion nuclear reactions. More conventionally, nuclear power is interpreted as the utilization of the fission reactions in a nuclear power reactor to produce steam for electric power production, for ship propulsion, or for process heat. Fission reactions involve the breakup of the nucleus of high-mass atoms and yield an energy release which is more than a millionfold greater than that obtained from chemical reactions involving the burning of a fuel. Successful control of the nuclear fission reactions utilizes this intensive source of energy.

Fission reactions provide intensive sources of energy. For example, the fissioning of an atom of uranium yields about 200 MeV, whereas the oxidation of an atom of carbon releases only 4 eV. On a weight basis, this 50 × 106 energy ratio becomes about 2.5 × 106. Uranium consists of several isotopes, only 0.7% of which is uranium-235, the fissile fuel currently used in reactors. Even with these considerations, including the need to enrich the fuel to several percent uranium-235, the fission reactions are attractive energy sources when coupled with abundant and relatively cheap uranium ore.

Although the main process of nuclear power is the release of energy in the fission process which occurs in the reactor, there are a number of other important processes, such as mining and waste disposal, which both precede and follow fission. Together they constitute the nuclear fuel cycle. See Nuclear fuel cycle

Power reactors include light-water-moderated and -cooled reactors (LWRs), including the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the boiling-water reactor (BWR). The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), and the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) have reached a high level of development but are not used for commercial purposes. See Nuclear reactor

Critics of nuclear power consider the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry to be too great a burden for society to bear. They argue that since the high-level wastes will contain highly toxic materials with long half-lives, such as a few tenths of one percent of plutonium that was in the irradiated fuel, the safekeeping of these materials must be assured for time periods longer than social orders have existed in the past. Nuclear proponents answer that the time required for isolation is much shorter, since only 500 to 1000 years is needed before the hazard posed by nuclear waste falls below that posed by common natural ore deposits in the environment. See Radioactive waste management

Nuclear power facilities present a potential hazard rarely encounted with other facilities; that is, radiation. A major health hazard would result if, for instance, a significant fraction of the core inventory of a power reactor were released to the atmosphere. Such a release of radioactivity is clearly unacceptable, and steps are taken to assure it could never happen. These include use of engineered safety systems, various construction and design codes, regulations on reactor operation, and periodic maintenance and inspection.

References in periodicals archive ?
An even more specific question is about cancer risks near a particular nuclear facility (e.
ABC News reported that, "Israeli officials believed that a target their forces bombed inside Syria last month was a nuclear facility, because they had detailed photographs taken by a possible spy inside the complex.
But the Bush Administration, seeing Kim Jong Il withdraw from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Pact and apparently restart his nuclear facility, says it doesn't want "to reward his bad behavior.
North Korea claimed it was restarting the Yongbyon nuclear facility to generate electricity.
Reports said the threat indicated that an unidentified Islamic terrorist group is planning to attack Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear facility or another nuclear facility in the state or elsewhere in the North-east.
The paper said the threat indicated that an unidentified Islamic terrorist group is planning to attack Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear facility, or another nuclear facility in the state or nearby.
Although neither side has publicly commented on Monday's meeting, a negotiator said the talks on the North's suspected underground nuclear facility are moving in the right direction.
which made the demand in high-level talks in Geneva, suspects North Korea has been building an underground nuclear facility in Kumchangri, 40 kilometers northwest of the Yongbyon nuclear complex.
In its ruling, the court held that there were no genuine issues of material fact, that Chemetron's operations did not involve a nuclear facility and that the nuclear material was not contained in spent fuel or waste.
It contended that the cost of the nuclear facility itself was the basis for rate increases (rather than the audit) and the cost of the nuclear facility had been capitalized.
ensure that human performance and fitness for duty are addressed by Class I nuclear facility licensees to support workers in conducting their daily tasks and to be prepared to effectively respond to nuclear emergencies

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