Pleomorphism

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Related to Nuclear pleomorphism: hyperchromatism

pleomorphism

[‚plē·ō′mȯr‚fiz·əm]
(biology)
The occurrence of more than one distinct form of an organism in a single life cycle.
(crystallography)

Pleomorphism

 

an environmentally produced change in the incidence of disease and causes of death as well as in the properties of individual diseases, that is, nosologic entities (see NOSOLOGY).

During the 20th century, extensive immunization of populations and nationwide preventive measures in economically developed countries have eradicated many infectious diseases, for example, plague and poliomyelitis, and have sharply reduced infant mortality caused by infectious diseases. Changes in living conditions have reduced the incidence of diseases that stem from nutritional deficiency, for example, avitaminoses and iron-deficiency anemia. On the other hand, the incidence of injuries, tumors, and cardiovascular and viral diseases has increased.

New hereditary and occupational diseases have resulted from such environmental changes as those that accompany the growth of the chemical industry. Therapy-induced pleomorphism is a change in the clinical picture of a disease as a result of treatment. For example, the use of drugs has led to the disappearance of severe forms of thyrotoxicosis and anemia. Similarly, tuberculous meningitis, comas in diabetes mellitus, and acute pulmonary suppuration have become rare. In leukemia, tumor cells have disappeared from bone marrow because of the use of cytostatic agents, but they multiply in the nervous system and viscera. Undesirable side effects may follow medicinal treatment, and beyond a certain intensity these constitute a drug disease. The aftereffects of gastric or cardiac surgery, for example, can also give rise to disease.

Diseases that have received a new nosologic classification because of the growth of medical knowledge should not be considered examples of pleomorphism.

REFERENCES

Davydovskii, I. V. Patologicheskaia anatomiia i patogenez boleznei cheloveka, 3rd ed., vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1956–58.
Shul’tsev, G. P. “Terapevticheskii patomorfizm.” Klinicheskaia meditsina. 1973, no. 6.
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Histologic sections showed a densely packed tumor composed of clear cells with rounded nuclei and minimal nuclear pleomorphism.
4) Malignancy is confirmed by the presence of nuclear pleomorphism, mitosis, and an infiltrative growth pattern?
The prevalence of all the following histologic features was similar in the biologically benign and malignant tumors: papillae, pseudo-papillae, psammoma bodies, nuclear grooves, nuclear overlap, "orphan Annie" nuclei, nuclear pseudo-inclusions, prominent nucleoli, hypercellularity, colloid scalloping, eosinophilic cytoplasm, mitoses, vascular invasion, cytologic atypia, and nuclear pleomorphism.
These findings were in contrast with those of the patient's previous biopsy specimens, which lacked nuclear pleomorphism.
It consists of sheets and cords of plump spindle cells with nuclear pleomorphism and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with vacuoles occasionally containing erythrocytes, set in a myxohyaline stroma.
For the most part, nuclear pleomorphism, increased mitotic figures (>2 per high-power field), and necrosis are uncommon.
The grading system of bladder adenocarcinomas is based on the degree of glandular differentiation and nuclear pleomorphism (well, moderate, and poorly differentiated).
The relative lack of nuclear pleomorphism in low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma further contributes to a possible misdiagnosis of a benign lesion in these cases.
1) Significant nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic activity are rare.
6,18) Microscopically, rhabdomyosarcoma can be distinguished by the presence of atypical mitotic figures, nuclear pleomorphism, and foci of invasion.
Mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism is a constant feature in DPN and may be marked, but usually in a focal and random manner (Figure 6, a), with the size of melanocytic nuclei being more than twice the size of basal keratinocytes.
Grade III tumors are characterized by irregularly shaped chondrocytes in a myxoid matrix and increased nuclear pleomorphism.