nuclear power

(redirected from Nuclear power plants)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal.
Related to Nuclear power plants: nuclear energy

nuclear power

power, esp electrical or motive, produced by a nuclear reactor

nuclear power

[′nü·klē·ər ′pau̇·ər]
(nucleonics)
Power whose source is nuclear fission or fusion.

Nuclear power

Power derived from fission or fusion nuclear reactions. More conventionally, nuclear power is interpreted as the utilization of the fission reactions in a nuclear power reactor to produce steam for electric power production, for ship propulsion, or for process heat. Fission reactions involve the breakup of the nucleus of high-mass atoms and yield an energy release which is more than a millionfold greater than that obtained from chemical reactions involving the burning of a fuel. Successful control of the nuclear fission reactions utilizes this intensive source of energy.

Fission reactions provide intensive sources of energy. For example, the fissioning of an atom of uranium yields about 200 MeV, whereas the oxidation of an atom of carbon releases only 4 eV. On a weight basis, this 50 × 106 energy ratio becomes about 2.5 × 106. Uranium consists of several isotopes, only 0.7% of which is uranium-235, the fissile fuel currently used in reactors. Even with these considerations, including the need to enrich the fuel to several percent uranium-235, the fission reactions are attractive energy sources when coupled with abundant and relatively cheap uranium ore.

Although the main process of nuclear power is the release of energy in the fission process which occurs in the reactor, there are a number of other important processes, such as mining and waste disposal, which both precede and follow fission. Together they constitute the nuclear fuel cycle. See Nuclear fuel cycle

Power reactors include light-water-moderated and -cooled reactors (LWRs), including the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the boiling-water reactor (BWR). The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), and the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) have reached a high level of development but are not used for commercial purposes. See Nuclear reactor

Critics of nuclear power consider the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry to be too great a burden for society to bear. They argue that since the high-level wastes will contain highly toxic materials with long half-lives, such as a few tenths of one percent of plutonium that was in the irradiated fuel, the safekeeping of these materials must be assured for time periods longer than social orders have existed in the past. Nuclear proponents answer that the time required for isolation is much shorter, since only 500 to 1000 years is needed before the hazard posed by nuclear waste falls below that posed by common natural ore deposits in the environment. See Radioactive waste management

Nuclear power facilities present a potential hazard rarely encounted with other facilities; that is, radiation. A major health hazard would result if, for instance, a significant fraction of the core inventory of a power reactor were released to the atmosphere. Such a release of radioactivity is clearly unacceptable, and steps are taken to assure it could never happen. These include use of engineered safety systems, various construction and design codes, regulations on reactor operation, and periodic maintenance and inspection.

References in periodicals archive ?
CHASHMA -- Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi Friday inaugurated Pakistan's fifth nuclear power plant C-4 here with a capacity of generating 340MW of power.
The country has inked an agreement with the Russians to construct two nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity.
According to the International Atomic Energy Agency's assessment construction of nuclear power plant will take 10 - 12 years," said the ministry, adding that the experience in the construction of power plants abroad will also be considered.
So, one can say that the nuclear power plants, C-1, C-2 and KANUPP, are running well and providing low cost electricity.
Earlier the country's President Nursultan Nazarbayev commissioned the Government to decide before the end of the Q1 2014 on the location, sources of investments and timing of constructing a nuclear power plant in Kazakhstan.
Nuclear power plants also entail only a relatively small amount of land, in contrast to the large areas required by solar or wind generating systems.
It's their mission to tell the dangers of nuclear power plants," Azuma said of the student delegates who come from different schools.
At least half of all the nuclear power plants are located in three countries, namely United States, France and Japan, he said.
If existing nuclear power plants will be decommissioned on schedule, the MOEA will have to look for alternative energy to fill up with the gap of power supply and keep up electricity prices at a rational level.
Asked he would rate thermal energy plants, hydro-electric plants, nuclear power plants and renewable energy plants, Dr Yunes said: "At the present time, thermal energy plants have the top priority.
Skeptics still harbor many of the objections that have slowed or stopped the construction of new nuclear power plants, but rising concerns about the cost and security of energy supplies and global climate change have reframed the debate in terms more favorable for nuclear power advocates.
With regard to security, the nation's 103 nuclear power plants are among the best-defended industrial facilities in the U.

Full browser ?