nuclear power

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nuclear power

power, esp electrical or motive, produced by a nuclear reactor

nuclear power

[′nü·klē·ər ′pau̇·ər]
(nucleonics)
Power whose source is nuclear fission or fusion.

Nuclear power

Power derived from fission or fusion nuclear reactions. More conventionally, nuclear power is interpreted as the utilization of the fission reactions in a nuclear power reactor to produce steam for electric power production, for ship propulsion, or for process heat. Fission reactions involve the breakup of the nucleus of high-mass atoms and yield an energy release which is more than a millionfold greater than that obtained from chemical reactions involving the burning of a fuel. Successful control of the nuclear fission reactions utilizes this intensive source of energy.

Fission reactions provide intensive sources of energy. For example, the fissioning of an atom of uranium yields about 200 MeV, whereas the oxidation of an atom of carbon releases only 4 eV. On a weight basis, this 50 × 106 energy ratio becomes about 2.5 × 106. Uranium consists of several isotopes, only 0.7% of which is uranium-235, the fissile fuel currently used in reactors. Even with these considerations, including the need to enrich the fuel to several percent uranium-235, the fission reactions are attractive energy sources when coupled with abundant and relatively cheap uranium ore.

Although the main process of nuclear power is the release of energy in the fission process which occurs in the reactor, there are a number of other important processes, such as mining and waste disposal, which both precede and follow fission. Together they constitute the nuclear fuel cycle. See Nuclear fuel cycle

Power reactors include light-water-moderated and -cooled reactors (LWRs), including the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the boiling-water reactor (BWR). The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), and the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) have reached a high level of development but are not used for commercial purposes. See Nuclear reactor

Critics of nuclear power consider the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry to be too great a burden for society to bear. They argue that since the high-level wastes will contain highly toxic materials with long half-lives, such as a few tenths of one percent of plutonium that was in the irradiated fuel, the safekeeping of these materials must be assured for time periods longer than social orders have existed in the past. Nuclear proponents answer that the time required for isolation is much shorter, since only 500 to 1000 years is needed before the hazard posed by nuclear waste falls below that posed by common natural ore deposits in the environment. See Radioactive waste management

Nuclear power facilities present a potential hazard rarely encounted with other facilities; that is, radiation. A major health hazard would result if, for instance, a significant fraction of the core inventory of a power reactor were released to the atmosphere. Such a release of radioactivity is clearly unacceptable, and steps are taken to assure it could never happen. These include use of engineered safety systems, various construction and design codes, regulations on reactor operation, and periodic maintenance and inspection.

References in periodicals archive ?
Trawsfynydd is the only inland nuclear power station to have been built in the UK.
The case for investment in Dungeness B and other nuclear power stations has been supported by the existence of the capacity market one of the reforms of the electricity market which gives investors confidence in highly challenging conditions.
NNWE wants to ensure that contracts for new nuclear power stations are awarded in a way which delivers the greatest benefit in the fairest manner, to local communities, as well as to consumers and national governments.
The SNP Government have a moratorium on building nuclear power stations but will allow existing sites to be renewed.
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Kan said the nuclear power station lacks medium- to long-term measures for protection against disasters, such as embankments.
It's heartening to learn that the University of Huddersfield is at the very forefront of devising the next generation of nuclear power stations which will be much safer than they are now.
Here are the conditions of Japan's Nuclear Power Station Plant, Fukushima Daini, Fukushima Daiichi, and Kashiwazaki Kariwa:
We could also talk about uniform safety standards for all European nuclear power stations because everyone in Europe would be affected to the same extent by an accident at a nuclear power station in Europe," she said.
Summary: President Hosni Mubarak has chosen the site of Al-Dabaa on Egypt's northwest coast as the location for Egypt's first nuclear power station, official sources told Al-Masry Al-Youm.
The construction of the Yangjiang Nuclear Power Station with a full installed capacity of 6 million kilowatts-started in December 2008 and is planned to be put into commercial operation in 2013.

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