nuclear power

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nuclear power

power, esp electrical or motive, produced by a nuclear reactor

nuclear power

[′nü·klē·ər ′pau̇·ər]
(nucleonics)
Power whose source is nuclear fission or fusion.

Nuclear power

Power derived from fission or fusion nuclear reactions. More conventionally, nuclear power is interpreted as the utilization of the fission reactions in a nuclear power reactor to produce steam for electric power production, for ship propulsion, or for process heat. Fission reactions involve the breakup of the nucleus of high-mass atoms and yield an energy release which is more than a millionfold greater than that obtained from chemical reactions involving the burning of a fuel. Successful control of the nuclear fission reactions utilizes this intensive source of energy.

Fission reactions provide intensive sources of energy. For example, the fissioning of an atom of uranium yields about 200 MeV, whereas the oxidation of an atom of carbon releases only 4 eV. On a weight basis, this 50 × 106 energy ratio becomes about 2.5 × 106. Uranium consists of several isotopes, only 0.7% of which is uranium-235, the fissile fuel currently used in reactors. Even with these considerations, including the need to enrich the fuel to several percent uranium-235, the fission reactions are attractive energy sources when coupled with abundant and relatively cheap uranium ore.

Although the main process of nuclear power is the release of energy in the fission process which occurs in the reactor, there are a number of other important processes, such as mining and waste disposal, which both precede and follow fission. Together they constitute the nuclear fuel cycle. See Nuclear fuel cycle

Power reactors include light-water-moderated and -cooled reactors (LWRs), including the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the boiling-water reactor (BWR). The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), and the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) have reached a high level of development but are not used for commercial purposes. See Nuclear reactor

Critics of nuclear power consider the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry to be too great a burden for society to bear. They argue that since the high-level wastes will contain highly toxic materials with long half-lives, such as a few tenths of one percent of plutonium that was in the irradiated fuel, the safekeeping of these materials must be assured for time periods longer than social orders have existed in the past. Nuclear proponents answer that the time required for isolation is much shorter, since only 500 to 1000 years is needed before the hazard posed by nuclear waste falls below that posed by common natural ore deposits in the environment. See Radioactive waste management

Nuclear power facilities present a potential hazard rarely encounted with other facilities; that is, radiation. A major health hazard would result if, for instance, a significant fraction of the core inventory of a power reactor were released to the atmosphere. Such a release of radioactivity is clearly unacceptable, and steps are taken to assure it could never happen. These include use of engineered safety systems, various construction and design codes, regulations on reactor operation, and periodic maintenance and inspection.

References in periodicals archive ?
More comprehensive changes in nuclear powerplant security are contained in Senator Reid's Nuclear Security Act (S.
NRC Chairman Meserve, testifying before the House Energy and Commerce subcommittee on oversight and investigations December 5, 2001, identified several legislative initiatives which he said would help the agency upgrade nuclear powerplant security.
He mentioned tree-spiking, Arizona powerlines, and threats to nuclear powerplants.
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In the south of France, the storm snapped powerlines to three 900-Mw nuclear powerplants, disabling the emergency cooling systems and forcing an emergency shutdown.
Under the banner of deregulation, Amergen has joined forces with Philadelphia Electric in an attempt to purchase 20 US nuclear powerplants -- including Three Mile Island, Nine Mile Point, Oyster Creek, and Vermont Yankee.
The answer: A canister of high-level radioactive waste, traveling from one of 109 aging US nuclear powerplants to Yucca Mountain, Nevada -- the proposed "final resting place" for America's most deadly garbage.
In Sweden, a shipload of 49 casks filled radioactive waste from nuclear powerplants was "found to have external contamination.
Though the prospect of a cold shutdown of the United States' 110 licensed nuke plants may bring a smile to the lips of clean energy advocates, the sobering reality is that 22 percent of the electricity used in the US comes from nuclear powerplants.
Webb, author of The Accident Hazards of Nuclear Power Plants, claims that launching the Cassini mission is the equivalent of sending 17 large nuclear powerplants, into the sky.
Ukraine -- Nuclear powerplants account for 33-43 percent of Ukraine's electric power generation.
Until 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for all domestic production of enriched uranium fuel of nuclear powerplants.

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