nuclear power

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nuclear power

power, esp electrical or motive, produced by a nuclear reactor

nuclear power

[′nü·klē·ər ′pau̇·ər]
Power whose source is nuclear fission or fusion.

Nuclear power

Power derived from fission or fusion nuclear reactions. More conventionally, nuclear power is interpreted as the utilization of the fission reactions in a nuclear power reactor to produce steam for electric power production, for ship propulsion, or for process heat. Fission reactions involve the breakup of the nucleus of high-mass atoms and yield an energy release which is more than a millionfold greater than that obtained from chemical reactions involving the burning of a fuel. Successful control of the nuclear fission reactions utilizes this intensive source of energy.

Fission reactions provide intensive sources of energy. For example, the fissioning of an atom of uranium yields about 200 MeV, whereas the oxidation of an atom of carbon releases only 4 eV. On a weight basis, this 50 × 106 energy ratio becomes about 2.5 × 106. Uranium consists of several isotopes, only 0.7% of which is uranium-235, the fissile fuel currently used in reactors. Even with these considerations, including the need to enrich the fuel to several percent uranium-235, the fission reactions are attractive energy sources when coupled with abundant and relatively cheap uranium ore.

Although the main process of nuclear power is the release of energy in the fission process which occurs in the reactor, there are a number of other important processes, such as mining and waste disposal, which both precede and follow fission. Together they constitute the nuclear fuel cycle. See Nuclear fuel cycle

Power reactors include light-water-moderated and -cooled reactors (LWRs), including the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the boiling-water reactor (BWR). The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), and the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) have reached a high level of development but are not used for commercial purposes. See Nuclear reactor

Critics of nuclear power consider the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry to be too great a burden for society to bear. They argue that since the high-level wastes will contain highly toxic materials with long half-lives, such as a few tenths of one percent of plutonium that was in the irradiated fuel, the safekeeping of these materials must be assured for time periods longer than social orders have existed in the past. Nuclear proponents answer that the time required for isolation is much shorter, since only 500 to 1000 years is needed before the hazard posed by nuclear waste falls below that posed by common natural ore deposits in the environment. See Radioactive waste management

Nuclear power facilities present a potential hazard rarely encounted with other facilities; that is, radiation. A major health hazard would result if, for instance, a significant fraction of the core inventory of a power reactor were released to the atmosphere. Such a release of radioactivity is clearly unacceptable, and steps are taken to assure it could never happen. These include use of engineered safety systems, various construction and design codes, regulations on reactor operation, and periodic maintenance and inspection.

References in periodicals archive ?
activists had attempted to blow up a nuclear powerplant.
Loss of off-site electrical power poses the most prominent risk to nuclear powerplant safety.
Belarus -- Finding volunteers to clean up the damaged Chernobyl nuclear powerplant has proved impossible, reports the Dutch news agency Algemeen Nederlands Persagentschap.
By now we should have shifted to flying cars with nuclear powerplants encased in lightweight shielding that fly themselves to our destination, and be very close to perfecting the teleportation techniques seen in Star Trek.
After years of opposition by antinuclear activists, environmentalists and the governors of all the affected states, the Bush administration is prepared to start shipping 70,000 tons of radioactive wastes from nearly 100 nuclear powerplants nationwide to an "interim" storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
In October, when asked specifically about the likelihood of new nuclear powerplants in the United States, Secretary O'Leary said she doubted they would be built because, "You can't site them, and you can't pay for them.
The House approved by a 254-160 margin the Clement-Barton nuclear licensing reform amendment, which properly balances effective public participation in the licensing process with the predictability and finality necessary to allow future investment in nuclear powerplants.
Categories: Energy, Agency missions, Cost analysis, Environmental protection, Hazardous substances, Hazardous waste disposal, Hazardous waste sites, Hazardous wastes, Health hazards, Nuclear energy, Nuclear facilities, Nuclear materials, Nuclear powerplants, Nuclear radiation monitoring, Nuclear waste disposal, Nuclear waste management, Nuclear waste storage, Nuclear weapons, Radiation exposure hazards, Radioactive materials, Radioactive pollution, Radioactive waste disposal, Radioactive wastes, Uranium, Water pollution control
Chen's decision was foreshadowed by Taiwan's Minister of Economics who toured Taipei County's three existing nuclear powerplants and concluded that "construction of NPP4 be halted.
Inspired by the goals of the 1992 UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Belgium will also replace nuclear powerplants with renewable energy technologies.
Categories: Energy, Cost analysis, Decontamination, Environmental cleanups, Hazardous waste disposal, Hazardous waste sites, Hazardous wastes, Nuclear energy, Nuclear facilities, Nuclear facility decommissioning, Nuclear fuel plants, Nuclear powerplants, Nuclear waste disposal, Radioactive waste disposal, Schedule slippages, Uranium, Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund

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