Nuclear-Free Zone


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Nuclear-Free Zone

 

in international law a demilitarized zone from which the most dangerous types of weapons—atomic and thermonuclear—are excluded. One of the methods of maintaining international peace and security in accordance with the principles and stipulations of the United Nations Charter.

Proposals for the establishment of nuclear-free zones in various parts of the world make it possible to limit to a certain extent the distribution and use of nuclear weapons. The idea of a nuclear-free zone was first applied in practice in the international Antarctic Treaty of 1959, in article 5 of which it is stated that all nuclear explosions and burial of radioactive matter shall be prohibited in the Antarctic.

On Feb. 14, 1958, the minister of foreign affairs of the Polish People’s Republic, A. Rapacki, proposed an extensive program for the creation of a zone in Europe, which would include the Polish People’s Republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, and the Federal Republic of Germany, which would be free of atomic weapons, and in which conventional weapons would be limited. This so-called Rapacki plan was approved by many countries. In December 1963 the Polish People’s Republic introduced a proposal for the “freezing” (that is, the maintenance of the status quo) of nuclear weapons in central Europe, which became known as the Gomulka plan. In May 1968 the government of the USSR proposed that the whole Mediterranean region should be proclaimed a nuclear-free zone and declared its willingness not to deploy any nuclear weapons or their means of delivery in Mediterranean waters provided that the same obligations were assumed by other states. This proposal of the USSR was favorably received by the Mediterranean countries. In September 1957 the Rumanian People’s Republic proposed that a conference of the heads of government of the Balkan states should be convened to consider the question of strengthening peace in the Balkans, and on June 25, 1959, the government of the USSR proposed the creation of a nuclear-free zone in the Balkans and the Adriatic region.

In November 1961 the United Nations General Assembly at its 16th session adopted a special resolution declaring Africa to be a nuclear-free zone, and in 1964 at its 19th session it adopted a resolution declaring Latin America to be a nuclear-free zone.

A. I. IOIRYSH

References in periodicals archive ?
Councils had been told to prepare for the possibility of an atomic attack, but preferred to do nothing but announce themselves as nuclear-free zones while refusing to make serious contingency plans.
Israel is the only Middle East nation that has not signed the landmark 1979 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and Mr Rouhani said that has prevented the region from establishing a nuclear-free zone.
Additionally, the council suggested future meetings among countries in the Middle East to create a nuclear-free zone.
But after 15 years of inaction on a nuclear-free zone, Egypt proposed that the 2010 conference endorse launching negotiations to establish one.
Another question in the poll asked what Egypt should do if Iran builds a nuclear weapon; 61 percent responded that Egypt should then build its own bomb, while 32 percent said Egypt should push to make the Middle East a nuclear-free zone and 7 percent advocated doing nothing.
He said the five permanent UNSC members should guarantee a nuclear security umbrella for the Middle East countries which join a nuclear-free zone - and impose "military sanctions" against those seen to be developing nuclear weapons.
We support the nuclear non-proliferation system, oppose Iran developing nuclear weapons and back the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East region, but we respect the right of Iran to use nuclear power peacefully," Chen said.
The college held a mock United Nations event last week which debated the world's approach to tackling greenhouse gas emissions, the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East and staged a simulated approach to an oil spill off the coast of Nigeria.
Therefore, a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East is the essential backbone of our policy".
At the time, Obama suggested that such a move would undermine the possibility of breakthrough talks on a Middle East nuclear-free zone, as proposed by the NPT conference three months ago.
In the light of the international meeting regarding reviewing the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), there are decisions on the importance of Israel's joining the treaty for the Middle East to be a nuclear-free zone," Moussa said.
An overwhelming majority of the countries also called for a nuclear-free zone in the Middle East and for Israel to join the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and place all of its nuclear facilities under the safeguard of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Gul said.

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