Nucleocytoplasmic Ratio

nucleocytoplasmic ratio

[¦nü·klē·ō‚sīd·ə′plaz·mik ′rā·shō]
(cell and molecular biology)
The ratio between the measured cross-sectional area or estimated volume of the nucleus of a cell to the volume of its cytoplasm. Also known as karyoplasmic ratio.

Nucleocytoplasmic Ratio

 

(also nucleoplasmic ratio), in biology, the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic volume. The ratio was introduced in 1908 by the German scientist R. Hertwig, who believed that regular decrease in the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was the immediate cause of the initiation of cell division. Hertwig’s hypothesis has not been confirmed. The volume of the nucleus is usually directly proportional to the volume of the cytoplasm, including the case of polyploidy of the nucleus. However, many exceptions to this proportionality are known, for example, in the development of egg cells or in changes of the functional activity of a cell. Cells of different tissues have different nucleocyto-plasmic ratios; therefore, the ratios are used to characterize cell types.

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The ulcerated area showed abundant epithelioid cells in loosely held stroma showing highly dysplastic features of pleomorphism, altered nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and atypical mitoses (Figure 7(c)).
A biopsy performed from the margin of the ulcer showed keratin pearls, nuclear hyperchromatism and pleomorphism with increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the squamous epithelial cells confirming it as well-differentiated keratinizing SCC (Figure 3).
In adenomas showing moderate dysplasia there is focal loss of nuclear polarity, an increase in the nucleocytoplasmic ratio and further loss of mucin production.
The criteria for malignancy included: I) disrupted nucleocytoplasmic ratio; II) prominent nucleoli, increased in size, with irregular configuration; III) an increased number of nucleoli; IV) irregular nuclear membrane; V) nuclear hyperchromasia; VI) coarse chromatin; VII) decreased cell adherence; VIII) necrosis; and IX) mitotic figures.
Peripheral blood neutrophils [12] are showed striking dysplastic [12] features, which included detached nuclear fragments, acquired Pelger-Huet anomaly chromatin clumping, neutrophils with strangely shaped nuclei, and a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio and macropolycytes.
The epithelium within this pseudopapillary lesion showed an increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio, round large nuclei, and prominent nucleoli (Figure 1, B).
In summary, this case illustrates that several of the key criteria used for a diagnosis of TIC can be seen in papillary syncytial metaplasia of tubal mucosal endometriosis, including marked epithelial stratification with loss of polarity, increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and rounded nuclei with chromatin clearing and prominent nucleoli.
Imprint smear from the ulcer showed mainly necrosis and few cells with high nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Further details were obscured by necrotic debris.
The cells were cuboidal in the hyperplastic and papillary areas, with an increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio, round bland nuclei with low mitotic activity, and inconspicuous nucleoli (Figure 1).
Important cytological criteria useful in distinguishing HCC from non-neoplastic liver are increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio, arrangement of tumor cells in trabecular pattern and atypical naked hepatocytic nuclei.
Although occasional cells showed ultrastructural intermediate features between the undifferentiated and glandular cell types (large size and high nucleocytoplasmic ratio but a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, a prominent Golgi complex, and few secretory granules), in general, there was an abrupt transition between the 2 components.
Individual cells were uniform sized with eosinophilic cytoplasm, high nucleocytoplasmic ratio and increased mitotic activity (Figure 2).