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(no͞or`hächē), 1559–1626, Manchu national founder. He consolidated the ManchuManchu
, people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and who ruled China from 1644 until 1912. These people, related to the Tungus, were descended from the Jurchen, a tribe known in Asia since the 7th cent. They were first called Manchu in the early 17th cent.
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 tribes under his control and founded the administration that later ruled China as the Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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 dynasty (1644–1912). His greatest achievement was the creation of the banner systembanner system,
Manchu conscription system. Companies of Manchu warriors were grouped (1601) into brigades, each with a distinctive banner. The banner system integrated former tribal units into a bureaucratic war machine that enabled the Manchus to conquer and rule China as the
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 of military organization that welded the Manchu nation and its early Mongol and Chinese adherents into an efficient war machine. In 1618 he attacked the MingMing
, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper.
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 forces and took part of Liaodong. Further victories followed, and in 1625 he moved the Manchu capital to Shenyang (Mukden). During this later period, Nurhaci developed a civil administration with the help of captured Chinese officials.
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