New Granada

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New Granada

(grənä`də), former Spanish colony, N South America. It included at its greatest extent present Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. Between 1499 and 1510 a host of conquerors explored the Caribbean coast of Panama and South America. After 1514, Pedro Arias de Ávila was successful in assuring permanent colonization of the isthmus of Panama. At Santa Marta (1525) and Cartagena (1533), Spanish control of the Colombian coast was firmly established, and in the next few years the northern hinterland was explored. German adventurers, notably Nikolaus Federmann, penetrated the Venezuelan and Colombian llanos between 1530 and 1546. By far the greatest of the conquerors was Gonzalo Jiménez de QuesadaJiménez de Quesada, Gonzalo
, c.1499–1579, Spanish conquistador in Colombia. Chief magistrate of Santa Marta, he was commissioned to explore the Magdalena in search of El Dorado.
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, who in 1536 ascended the Magdalena River, climbed the mighty Andean cordillera, where he subdued the powerful Chibcha (an advanced native civilization), and by 1538 had founded Santa Fé de Bogotá, later known simply as BogotáBogotá
, city (1993 pop. 4,931,796), central Colombia, capital and largest city of Colombia, and capital of Cundinamarca dept. A picturesque, spacious city, Bogotá is on a high, fertile plateau (c.8,560 ft/2,610 m) in the E Andes and has a cool, moist climate.
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. He named the region El Nuevo Reino de Granada [the new kingdom of Granada]. During the next 10 years the conquest was virtually completed. No civil government was established in New Granada until 1549, when an audiencia court, a body with both executive and judicial authority, was set up in Bogotá. To further stabilize colonial government, New Granada was made a presidency (an administrative and political division headed by a governor) in 1564, and the audiencia was relegated to its proper judicial functions. Loosely attached to the viceroyalty of Peru, the presidency came to include Panama, Venezuela, and most of Colombia. Disputes with—and the great distance from—Lima led to the creation (1717) of the viceroyalty of New Granada, comprising Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. Later the captaincy general of Venezuela and the presidency of Quito were detached, creating a political division that was to survive the revolution against Spain and the efforts of Simón Bolívar to establish a republic of Greater Colombia. The struggle for independence began in 1810, and by 1830 Venezuela and Ecuador had seceded, and the remnant (Colombia and Panama) was renamed the Republic of New Granada. This became the Republic of Colombia in 1886, from which the present Panama seceded in 1903.

Bibliography

See A. J. Kuethe, Military Reform and Society in New Granada (1978).

New Granada

1. a former Spanish presidency and later viceroyalty in South America. At its greatest extent it consisted of present-day Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador
2. the name of Colombia when it formed, with Panama, part of Great Colombia (1819--30)
References in periodicals archive ?
En esa coyuntura, escribio una serie de textos entre los que resalta de manera notable el ensayo intitulado: Apuntamientos para la historia de la Nueva Granada, publicado en 1853.
El sentido de estas afirmaciones, que acusaban la situacion negativa bajo el dominio espanol, coincidian claramente con la obra de otro correligionario como Jose Antonio de Plaza que escribio las Memorias para la historia de la Nueva Granada desde su descubrimiento hasta el 20 de julio de 1810 (1850), en donde se atacaba tambien duramente toda la herencia Colonial.
Por ejemplo, Samper senalaba como los problemas de inestabilidad que vivia la Nueva Granada residian en las tensiones que se daban entre los elementos constitutivos de la poblacion neogranadina y el caracter "absolutista" de muchas de las instituciones republicanas.
Pese a las condiciones distintas de la Nueva Granada y Espana, el liberalismo militante de estos dos personajes tomaran rumbos similares para concluir tres decadas despues en la defensa de una alianza entre los postulados catolicos y algunos aspectos republicanos como fundamentos del proyecto politico futuro de ambas naciones.
Agustin Codazzi y la Comision Corografica de la Nueva Granada.
Es el caso de obras como las de Jose Manuel Groot, autor de una Historia eclesiastica y civil de la Nueva Granada (1869), como replica al trabajo de Plaza; al igual que la obra de Sergio Arboleda, autor de La Republica en la America espanola (1869) en donde atacaba la idea de la democracia como un artificio y defendia como proyecto de organizacion politica el establecimiento de un gobierno aristocratico sostenido por el voto de minorias ilustradas (Jaramillo 1982; Uruena 1994).
There were contradictory government conclusions as to who planted the bomb at Nueva Granada.
In no part of Nueva Granada that I have seen or heard of do they pay any attention to the cultivation of the soil.
Nueva Granada: At the time, Panama was a province of the Republic of Nueva Granada, later Colombia.