The frequency of null alleles
was estimated using the individual breeding model (10,000 iterations) implemented in INEst v 1.
Three loci displayed significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, likely reflecting occurrence of null alleles
spiniferus from 48 female individuals in which all loci also deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and no loci exhibited significant evidence of null alleles
22-24]detected different null alleles
, including Wx-A1.
Heterozygous null alleles
in filaggrin contribute to clinical dry skin in young adults and the elderly [Letter].
Three types of errors could occur during the processes of identification and isolation using primers and amplification by PCR: null alleles
(one or more alleles fail to amplify during PCR), stuttering (slight changes occur in the allele sizes during PCR) and large allele dropout (large alleles do not amplify as efficiently as small alleles) (Van Oosterhout et al.
In addition, the effects of ignoring the possible presence of null alleles
on the strength of parentage evidence is also demonstrated using case work data.
We have shown that this approach enables the generation of null alleles
for most human genes and can be used to pinpoint genes that are involved in phenotypes of interest.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type I: molecular heterogeneity for COLIA1 null alleles
of type I collagen.
We also checked all loci for the presence of null alleles
(Chakraborty et al.
were also included in the overall number of alleles in a specific VNTR locus.
The PM status can be deduced with >99% certainty from the presence of 2 nonfunctional alleles, with > 20 null alleles
having been identified (43).