2004) was used to test for null alleles
and scoring errors.
were determined using the program Micro-Checker v.
The presence of null alleles
was tested by the Micro-Checker software (VAN OOSTERHOUT et al.
0 was used to assess the polymorphism information content (PIC) and the frequency of null alleles
(Kalinowski et al.
2004) software was used to identify possible genotyping errors such as stuttering, dropout and the presence of null alleles
For the microsatellite data, we calculated these individual distance matrices on the basis of Nei's distance (Nei, 1972, 1978); the genetic distance of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards (1967), which is the least sensitive to the presence of null alleles
(Chapuis and Estoup, 2007); and genetic distance based on relative dissimilarity (Prevosti et al.
We found a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at locus BOOW13 which may be caused by high proportion of null alleles
To detect null alleles
(false homozygotes), we used Micro-Checker v2.
At the molecular level, mutations resulting in null alleles
, unrecognized duplicated loci, and unrecognized sex-chromosome loci can cause deviations from HWE (Callen et al.
There were few loci that failed to amplify and be detected, leading us to reject the idea that null alleles
are significant in the dataset.
Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: dominant markers and null alleles
Inheritance of null alleles
for microsatellites in the white pine weevil (Pissodes strobe [peck] Coleoptera: Curculionidae).