The presence of null alleles
was assessed with six different estimators (Dempster et al., 1977; Chakraborty et al., 1992; Brookfield, 1996; Van Oosterhout et al., 2004; Kalinowski et al., 2006), using Micro-Checker 2.2.3 (Van Oosterhout et al., 2004), Cervus 3.0 (Kalinowski et al., 2007) and FreeNA (Chapuis & Estoup, 2007).
The frequency of null alleles
was estimated using the individual breeding model (10,000 iterations) implemented in INEst v 1.0 (Chybicki & Burczyk 2009) that accounts for background levels of inbreeding.
The Genetic distance and the genetic identity between the populations was estimated from Nei standard genetic distance and genetic similarity index (Nei, 1972), UPGMA computed in TFPGA version 1.3 and the presence of null alleles
was checked by using Microcheker (Version 2.2.3).
The limitation of the exclusion method is that it is often not possible to exclude all potential fathers due to overlapping alleles among fathers, genotyping errors, null alleles
, and mutations (Jones and Arden, 2003).
Analysis with MICRO-CHECKER (Van Oosterhout et al., 2004) indicated the possible occurrence of null alleles
at Ra 6.
The spectrum of functional consequences of these variations is wide and includes null alleles
with no detectable function and/or expression (alleles CYP2B6 * 8, * 12, * 15, * 18, * 21), alleles with partially reduced function/ expression (CYP2B6 * 5, * 6, * 7, * 11, * 14, * 19, * 20, * 21) (17,19, 21, 23), and alleles with increased expression [CYP2B6 * 22; (24)].
Waxy wheats also are useful as donors of the Wx null alleles
, which may be used to develop partial waxy or reduced-amylose wheats.
In the Gulf pipefish this deviation can be explained by the presence of null alleles
(Jones and Avise 1997), although nulls were not observed at this locus in the dusky pipefish.
stutter bands, large allele dropout and null alleles
) for the data was analysed using Micro-Checker 2.2.1 (van Oosterhout et al., 2004).
MICRO-CHECKER (Van Oosterhout et al., 2004) was used to test for the presence of null alleles
, stuttering, and large allele dropout.
All loci were tested for possible genotyping errors, associated with null alleles
and mis-scoring using MICROCHECKER version 2.2.3 (Van Oosterhout et al.
The software MICROCHECKER  was used to identify the presence of null alleles
. MICROCHECKER was also used to test for another source of errors in miss-coring due to stuttering and allelic dropout.