In knockout male mice, VDR null mutant
were found to have gonadal insufficiency.
To substantiate that FimH was the ligand involved, several FimH plasmid constructs that have been previously described were used, including a wild type, a null mutant
missing the fimH gene, a Q133K mutant, and an N46A mutant.
(a) The E3 ligase null mutant
pCAF negates CIITA ubiquitination.
Moreover, mice infected with the null mutant
exhibited a more organized immune response with well-formed granulomas encasing URE[DELTA] cells .
We demonstrated that CK1.1 was not essential for parasite survival as the null mutant
parasites could survive as promastigotes and axenic amastigotes but may have a function in stationary phase.
Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 null mutant
mice, on the other hand, are viable with no reproductive phenotype reported (20-22).
In contrast, the AX-dependent life span extension was not observed even in a daf-16 null mutant
. Especially, the expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutases and catalases increased in two weeks after hatching, and the DAF-16 protein was translocated to the nucleus in the AX-exposed wild type.
The resultant animal is called a null mutant
or knockout for that gene.
cholerae relA null mutant
cells failed to accumulate (p)ppGpp upon amino acid starvation.
Techniques to make null mutant
mice include complicated steps: vector design and construction, colony selection of embryonic stem (ES) cells, production of chimera mice, confirmation of germ line transmission, and so forth.
This may be related to PKC[gamma]'s action at the [GABA.sub.A] receptor, as alcohol-enhanced inhibition of the receptor function was absent in brain tissue from the null mutant
mice compared with the wild-type controls (Harris et al.
Of the two, HS1 is a myosin II null mutant
that does not express conventional myosin, which is responsible for production of major mechanochemical forces (7).