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Therefore, the complex vector P is a complex null vector which represents the lightlike nature of the photon.
The set of all integral curves given by a unit nonnull or null vector field u is called the congruence of nonnull or null curves.
Since A(x - y) must be in R(A) and p is not, both sides vanish, implying that x - y is a null vector of A and q* y must be zero.
1] is said to be spacelike, timelike and null curve if the velocity vector [alpha][phi](t) is a spacelike, timelike and null vector, respectively [3].
0] iff (if and only if) p = [theta], here [theta] is the null vector of V;
4] is the unique null vector field perpendicular to the plane {[[xi].
N]) which depends upon [lambda] and which we desire to be nontrivial, that is, not equal to 0, the null vector.
The most remarkable properties of the O-System is that the actual form of the parallel null vector [[lambda].
For each k, either a Householder reflection is generated and applied, or a null vector of degree i - 1 is computed.
When evaluated in the neighborhood of zero factor taxes, the vector f is a null vector, so that:
A convenient choice is the null vector, so we set w(0) = 0.
We also cannot use a zero shift; this would remove the null vector [[?