Numerical representation

Numerical representation (computers)

Numerical data in a computer are written in basic units of storage made up of a fixed number of consecutive bits. The most commonly used units in the computer and communication industries are the byte (8 consecutive bits), the word (16 consecutive bits), and the double word (32 consecutive bits). A number is represented in each of these units by setting the bits according to the binary representation of the number. By convention the bits in a byte are numbered, from right to left, beginning with zero. Thus, the rightmost bit is bit number 0 and the leftmost bit is number 7. The rightmost bit is called the least significant bit, and the leftmost bit is called the most significant bit. Higher units are numbered also from right to left. In general, the rightmost bit is labeled 0 and the leftmost bit is labeled (n - 1), where n is the number of bits available. See Bit

Since each bit may have one of two values, 0 or 1, n bits can represent 2n different unsigned numbers. The range of these nonnegative integers varies from 0 to 2n - 1. To represent positive or negative numbers, one of the bits is chosen as the sign bit. By convention, the leftmost bit (or most significant bit) is considered the sign bit. A value of 0 in the sign bit indicates a positive number, whereas a value of 1 indicates a negative one. A similar convention is followed for higher storage units, including words and double words. Various conventions exist for representing integers and real numbers.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The numerical representation of the phrases "at least" is the relation "great or equal" denoted by the GE.
The analytical model is the numerical representation of the rest of the tested mechanical system.
In its ninth year, the Visualisation Development Competition invited researchers to submit proposals to develop research projects using Tamuq's 3D Immersive Visualisation Facility, which utilises scientific visualisation to create three-dimensional images and graphics that aid in analysing complex numerical representation. This technology helps scientists see data sets in new ways so that they can find patterns or relationships and communicate their data to others.
Notably, the numerical rating of factors and/or subfactors is permitted by Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) Section 15.305(a), and numerical representation of the importance of evaluation factors also is permitted for Armed Forces contracting by 10 U.S.
Fujitsu Laboratories has now developed circuit technology, based on integer operations, that improves energy efficiency by reducing the data bit width of the compute units and the memory that records training results of deep learning, using a unique numerical representation to reduce bit width.
Numerical Representation of the Grain-Scale Physical Character of Crustal Permeability.
Facebook product manager Will Ruben told the BBC: "A cropped low-resolution of the photo is uploaded [to the cloud] so that your phone gets a numerical representation of that face.
On the one hand, it is assumed that the numerical representation of quantity is abstract or amodal and independent of notation (e.g., Dehaene & Akhavein, 1995; Naccache & Dehaene, 2001; Schwarz & Ischebeck, 2000); on the other hand, it is suggested that such representation is not abstract, and it is mediated by modality-specific processes (e.g., Cohen Kadosh, 2008; Cohen Kadosh, Henik, & Rubinstein, 2008).
Version 6.5 of the platform includes the new Vortex Profiler, an application that enables rapid debugging and optimization of simulation performance through graphical or numerical representation of performance-hungry models, scenes, and scenarios.
During the valuation process, IP attorneys and valuers should work hand-in-hand in order to come to a commercially acceptable numerical representation of the intellectual property that is being transacted.
Ding, "Novel 4D numerical representation of DNA sequences," Chemical Physics Letters, vol.

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