(redirected from Nuremberg Code)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.


Nuremberg (no͝orˈəmbərg), Ger. Nürnberg (nürnˈbĕrkˌ), city (1994 pop. 498,945), Bavaria, S Germany, on the Pegnitz River and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. One of the great historic cities of Germany, Nuremberg is now an important commercial, industrial, and transportation center. Its manufactures include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, chemicals, textiles, and printed materials. Homemade toys and fine gingerbread (Ger. Lebkuchen) are traditional export items.

Points of Interest

Since 1945 much of the city's architectural beauty has been restored. Among the historic buildings are the churches of St. Sebald (1225–73), St. Lorenz (13th–14th cent.), St. Jacob (14th cent.), and Our Lady (1352–61); the Hohenzollern castle (11th–16th cent.); the old city hall (1616–22); and the house (now a museum) where Albrecht Dürer lived from 1509 to 1528. A large portion of the city walls (14th–17th cent.) still stands. Nuremberg is the site of the German National Museum (founded 1852), a part of the Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, and a museum of transportation.


First mentioned in 1050, Nuremberg received a charter in 1219 and was made a free imperial city by the end of the 13th cent. The city was independent of the burgraviate of Nuremberg, which included a large part of Franconia and which came (1192) under the control of the Hohenzollern family. Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade centers on the route from Italy to N Europe.

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg in the 15th and 16th cent. made it the center of the German Renaissance. Among the artists who were born or lived there, the painter and printmaker Albrecht Dürer was the greatest; others, such as the sculptors Adam Kraft, Veit Stoss, and Peter Vischer, and the painter and woodcarver Michael Wolgemut, adorned the city with their works, which brought together the Italian Renaissance and the German Gothic traditions. The city was also an early center of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. The scholars W. Pirkheimer and C. Celtes lectured in the city, A. Koberger set up a printing press and Regiomontanus an observatory, and the first pocket watches, known as Nuremberg eggs, were made there c.1500. An interest in culture on the part of the prosperous artisan class found expression in the contests of the meistersingers (mastersingers), among whom the shoemaker-poet Hans Sachs was the most prominent.

In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Reformation, and the religious Peace of Nuremberg, by which the Lutherans gained important concessions, was signed there (1532). In the Thirty Years War, Gustavus II was besieged (1632) in Nuremberg by Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th cent., when it grew as an industrial center. In 1806, Nuremberg passed to Bavaria. The first German railroad, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835.

After Adolf Hitler came to power, Nuremberg was made a national shrine by the National Socialists (Nazis), who held their annual party congresses nearby from 1933 through 1938. The city was the home of the Nazi leader Julius Streicher and became a center of anti-Semitic propaganda. At the party congress of 1935 the so-called Nuremberg Laws were promulgated; they deprived German Jews of civic rights, forbade intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews, and deprived persons of partly Jewish descent of certain rights. Until 1945, Nuremberg was the site of roughly half the total German production of airplane, submarine, and tank engines; as a consequence, the city was heavily bombed by the Allies during World War II and was largely destroyed. After the war, Nuremberg was the seat of the international tribunal for war crimes.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in Bavaria, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Population, 478,200 (1971). Nuremberg is situated on the unnavigable Pegnitz River, along the obsolete Ludwigs Canal and the Rhine-Main-Danube shipping canal, which is now under construction. An important railroad and highway junction, the city also has an airport. Nuremberg is one of the major industrial centers of the FRG. It has industries producing electrotechnic equipment (33 percent of all industrial workers are in this sector), machine tools, precision instruments, metal products, motorcycles, bicycles, pencils, and toys. There also are chemical, textile, garment, shoe, food and condiment, wood-products, and printing industries. Handicraft industries and small and medium-size industrial enterprises play a significant role. Educational institutions in Nuremberg include the Academy of Applied Technology, the Academy of Fine Arts, the Pedagogical Hochschule, and the departments of economics and social sciences of the University of Erlangen. The city has an opera house and a dramatic theater and is the site of the German National Museum and museums of transport, crafts, and toys.

The earliest record of Nuremberg dates to 1050. In 1219 the city was made a free imperial city. In the 14th and 15th centuries it was a major artisan and trade center and played an important role in the trade between southern Germany and Italy. In the 16th century, Nuremberg was one of the centers of German humanism. It was the birthplace of A. Dürer and H. Sachs; the humanists W. Pirkheimer and P. Melanchthon worked in the city. Nuremberg was the first imperial city to be affected by the Reformation (in 1524). In the 16th century, economic decline set in with the changing of trade routes. In 1806, Nuremberg became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. In the 19th century, especially after the building of the Nuremberg-Furth railroad line, Germany’s first railroad, the city became one of the principal economic centers of Bavaria. During the fascist period, the congresses of the Nazi Party were held in Nuremberg. In 1945 and 1946, after the defeat of fascism, the city was the site of the trial of a group of leading Nazi war criminals.

The center of the city has narrow, winding streets and many noteworthy centuries-old architectural monuments, including the castle (begun in the 11th century), the late Gothic Church of St. Sebaldus (c. 1240–73; hall choir, 1361–72), the Church of St. Lorenz (finished after 1350; choir, 1439–77), the Church of Our Lady (1352–61), City Hall (14th to 17th centuries), residential buildings from the 15th to 17th centuries with high pointed facades and abundant decoration (including A. Dürer’s house), and the Gothic “Beautiful Fountain” (14th century). All the churches mentioned above are adorned with sculptures by A. Kraft, P. Vischer, and V. Stoss. Around the center there are new residential districts with a regular layout (Sankt-Johannis, Galgenhof, Sankt-Jobst). In the 1950’s and 1960’s the satellite town of Langwasser was constructed.


Fehring, G. P., and A. Ress. Die Stadt Nürnberg. [Nuremberg] 1961.
Nürnberg—Geschichte einer europäischen Stadt, vols. 1–2. Edited by G. Pfeiffer. [Munich] 1970–71.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a city in S Germany, in N Bavaria: scene of annual Nazi rallies (1933--38), the anti-Semitic Nuremberg decrees (1935), and the trials of Nazi leaders for their war crimes (1945--46); important metalworking and electrical industries. Pop.: 493 553 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Nuremberg Code. https:// (accessed July 2017).
[2] Some aspects that involved contentious issues such as voluntary informed consent, therapeutic research, non-therapeutic research and benefits were much more structured and detailed compared with the principles in the Nuremberg Code. It was stressed that the rights and dignity of subjects had to be protected at all times, and on the issue of non-therapeutic research it underscored the prohibition of experimentation in all cases where consent had not been given.
US medical researchers, the Nuremberg Doctors trial, and the Nuremberg Code. A review of findings of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.
The Nuremberg Code of 1947 did not refer to this, so it became urgent to search for a procedure that would satisfy these new requirements.
Nuremberg Code "remains the most authoritative legal and ethical
From the inception of medical ethics with the post-Nazi trial Nuremberg Code, the principles of informed consent have been reiterated in numerous federal statutes and regulations, as well as in international professional codes and human rights instruments.
During the Nuremberg trials after the Second World War, an official ethical code for medical experiments regarding humans was drafted for the first time, the Nuremberg Code of 1947.
The Committee writes simply that "[t]he commission's [National Commission] deliberations took place against a background that included the Nazi experiments with concentration camp prisoners followed by the adoption of a stringent standard of voluntary consent in the Nuremberg Code." (31) There is no discussion of what research was actually conducted by Nazi physicians in the concentration camps, of the prosecution of these physicians by American prosecutors to a court composed of American judges, or of the rationale for the Nuremberg Code and its direct application to the American military, American prisoners, and American researchers.
Historically, documents meant to address the ethical treatment of human subjects and research began with the Nuremberg Code, a 1947 landmark post-Nuremberg trial document that was developed by two American physicians who worked with the prosecution.
An outcome of the trials was the creation of the Nuremberg Code in 1947, the first of a number of regulatory documents meant to protect human subjects from abuses in research (Grigsby & Roof, 1993; Hamilton, 2005).
Even after the Nuremberg trials exposed the Nazi war crimes and the Nuremberg Code provided a clear statement of standards for research on human subjects, unethical research programs continued to be designed and conducted.
International ethical guidelines, such as the Nuremberg Code (1949), the Helsinki Declaration (World Medical Association 2008), and guidelines of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (2002), require that risks be reasonable, minimized, and disclosed, but again these guidelines apply only to the risks directly related to research (Amdur and Bankert 2005).