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(no͞or`hächē), 1559–1626, Manchu national founder. He consolidated the ManchuManchu
, people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and who ruled China from 1644 until 1912. These people, related to the Tungus, were descended from the Jurchen, a tribe known in Asia since the 7th cent. They were first called Manchu in the early 17th cent.
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 tribes under his control and founded the administration that later ruled China as the Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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 dynasty (1644–1912). His greatest achievement was the creation of the banner systembanner system,
Manchu conscription system. Companies of Manchu warriors were grouped (1601) into brigades, each with a distinctive banner. The banner system integrated former tribal units into a bureaucratic war machine that enabled the Manchus to conquer and rule China as the
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 of military organization that welded the Manchu nation and its early Mongol and Chinese adherents into an efficient war machine. In 1618 he attacked the MingMing
, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper.
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 forces and took part of Liaodong. Further victories followed, and in 1625 he moved the Manchu capital to Shenyang (Mukden). During this later period, Nurhaci developed a civil administration with the help of captured Chinese officials.
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It was from the Jianzhou Jurchens, who had settled in the region of the Long White Mountains (sanggiyan golmin alin) just north of the Korean border, that the founder of the Manchu confederation, Nurgaci (1559-1626) arose.
By means of a series of campaigns at the end of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth century, Nurgaci united the Jianzhou and Haixi Jurchen tribes and quickly began to menace the Ming dynasty in China.
This name had occasionally been used previously during Nurgaci's time, but the origin of the name has always been a mystery.
The Jurchen language of the Jin dynasty was written in a complex script, partly logographic, partly syllabic, but by the time of Nurgaci's rise to power, it had fallen from use.
We can only surmise that the underlying dialect must have been close to that of Nurgaci and his close associates.
When Nurgaci subdued the Haixi Jurchens in the sixteenth century, the Sibe were the only Tungusic group that did not submit.