Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.




(no͞or`hächē), 1559–1626, Manchu national founder. He consolidated the ManchuManchu
, people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and who ruled China from 1644 until 1912. These people, related to the Tungus, were descended from the Jurchen, a tribe known in Asia since the 7th cent. They were first called Manchu in the early 17th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
 tribes under his control and founded the administration that later ruled China as the Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
..... Click the link for more information.
 dynasty (1644–1912). His greatest achievement was the creation of the banner systembanner system,
Manchu conscription system. Companies of Manchu warriors were grouped (1601) into brigades, each with a distinctive banner. The banner system integrated former tribal units into a bureaucratic war machine that enabled the Manchus to conquer and rule China as the
..... Click the link for more information.
 of military organization that welded the Manchu nation and its early Mongol and Chinese adherents into an efficient war machine. In 1618 he attacked the MingMing
, dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol Yüan dynasty, and unified all of China proper.
..... Click the link for more information.
 forces and took part of Liaodong. Further victories followed, and in 1625 he moved the Manchu capital to Shenyang (Mukden). During this later period, Nurhaci developed a civil administration with the help of captured Chinese officials.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
A similar example can be found in the Zhenhai chunqiu narrative of Nurhaci's death, which had long been an unsettled issue and a popular topic for novelistic creation.
(7.) These Manchu records document the history of the early years of the Manchu ethnic (1607-1616), the Tian-ming period (1616-1627) of Nurhaci's reign, and the Tiancong period of Hong Taiji's reign.
(17) A few days before the major battle, which occurred on the fourth day, the Choson interpreter Ha Soguk (?-1622) and another interpreter selected from the Ming forces had been sent to Hetu Ala to spy, and also to persuade friendly Jurchen, who had previously lived under Choson jurisdiction but were now under the rule of Nurhaci, to secretly assist the Ming-Choson allied army from inside the enemy camp.
18 There was a major border conflict with the Manchus, whose leader Nurhaci began a series of campaigns against the Ming during the last years of the sixteenth century and in 1616 established a new dynasty, the Later Jin, and proclaimed himself emperor.
Manchu is a term designating the peoples led by the brilliant organizer and strategist Nurhaci. Nurhaci, during the late sixteenth and into the seventeenth century, organized an army, first from his own people, the Jurchen tribes living in what is now northeast China.
The Mongolian written language, itself a very important cultural loan, was probably the greatest supplier of these new terms and ideas, for Mongolian was the only written language the Manchus had before Nurhaci's famous order of 1599 instituting the Manchu written language by the adaptation of the Mongolian script.(67)