Nut Pine Forests
Nut Pine Forests
forests in which species of nut pines predominate. These species include the Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica), the Korean pine (P. koraiensis), the Swiss pine (P. cembra), and the dwarf stone pine (P. pumila).
In the USSR most nut pine forests with a predominance of Siberian stone pines are concentrated in Western and Eastern Siberia and in the Far East; they are confined to mountains and plateaus with a humid mountain climate and cold soils. Most common are groves of nut pine and moss, found in forest in mountain zones at elevations of 800–1,300 m, and groves of golden rhododendrons and nut pine, found at elevations of 1,-400–1,800 m and higher. Also encountered are nut pine groves with Bergenia and moss-lichen vegetation. There are also nut pine groves in valleys. Nut pine forests with a predominance of Korean pines are widespread in the basins of the Amur and the Ussari (and of their tributaries); nut pine groves with maple and filbert stands or filbert and spruce stands are found on low, drained, gently sloping and rolling mountain slopes. Thickets of dwarf stone pine cover an extensive area.
The national economic significance of nut pine forests is determined by how much valuable trunk wood can be obtained and by the number of seeds (pine nuts). The seeds, which are the basic food for the sable, squirrel, chipmunk, Siberian ferret, and other animals, are spread primarily by the nutcracker. Nut pine forests are important in the prevention of erosion. Most of them serve as shelter belts and as means of water conservation.
REFERENCESPovarnitsyn, V. A. Kedrovye lesa SSSR. Krasnoiarsk, 1944.
Solov’ev, K. P. Kedrovo-shirokolistvennye lesa Dal’nego Vostoka i khoziaistvo v nikh. Kharbarovsk, 1958.
Dobrovol’skii, V. K. Kedrovye lesa SSSR i ikh ispol’zovanie. Moscow, 1964.
Lesa SSSR, vol. 4. Moscow, 1969.
Walter, H. Rastitel’nost’ zemnogo shara. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from German.)
L. F. PRAVDIN