Tohono O'Odham

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Related to O'odham: Tohono O'odham, Akimel O'odham

Tohono O'Odham

(tōhō`nō ō-ō`dəm) or


(păp`əgō', pä`–), Native North Americans speaking a language that belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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) and that is closely related to that of their neighbors, the PimaPima
, Native North American tribe of S Arizona. They speak the Pima language of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic family (see Native American languages). There are two divisions, the Lower Pima and the Upper Pima.
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. The probable ancestors of both the Pima and the Tohono O'Odham were the HohokamHohokam
, term denoting the culture of the ancient agricultural populations inhabiting the Salt and Gila river valleys of S Arizona (A.D. 300–1200). They are noted for their extensive irrigation systems, with canals over 10 mi (16 km) long that channeled water to
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 people. They were a semisedentary tribe who farmed corn, beans, and cotton and gathered wild vegetable products (e.g., the beans of the mesquite and the fruit of the giant cactus). Although farming remains the major economic activity of the Tohono O'Odham, many now are engaged in cattle raising. The women are known as excellent basket makers. The Tohono O'Odham formerly suffered dreadful depredations from their enemy, the Apache. They were early visited by Spanish missionaries, including Father Eusebio KinoKino, Eusebio Francisco
, c.1644–1711, missionary explorer in the American Southwest, b. Segno, in the Tyrol. He was in 1669 admitted to the Jesuit order. A distinguished mathematician, he observed the comet of 1680–81 at Cádiz, publishing his results in his
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 in 1694. In the 1860s they joined with the Pima and Maricopa in helping the United States to force a peace with the Apache. By an executive act of 1874 the United States created a reservation for the Tohono O'Odham in S Arizona; another was created in 1917. Today they live on these and on Pima and Maricopa reservations as well, all in Arizona. In 1990 there were close to 17,000 Tohono O'Odham in the United States; many others live in Sonora, Mexico.


See R. M. Underhill, Social Organization of the Papago Indians (1939, repr. 1969); J. Waddell, Papago Indians at Work (1969); B. Fontanta, Of Earth and Little Rain: The Papago Indians (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Tohono O'odham (pronounced toh-HOH-noh AW-tham) reservation has looser border security than other parts of the border, which has made it a popular crossing point for unauthorized migrants and a busy drug-smuggling corridor.
Seventy-five miles of land along the Mexico border technically belong to the Tohono O'odham Nation, which (http://www.
Se teme que esta misma suerte corran los cucapas, kikapues y tohono o'odham, cuyos HLI son menos de 200, y que su cultura se ha ido diluyendo como parte de la asimilacion de la cultura occidental en las nuevas generaciones (Salas 2007, 1 15).
Although NSF leases Kitt Peak from the Tohono O'odham nation, it does not actually own or operate most of the two dozen telescopes there.
But with European settlement, the O'odham people were arbitrarily divided by international and reservation borders.
Tribes represented include Arapaho, Assiniboine, Isleta, Navajo, San Carlos Apache, Sioux, Taos, and Tohono O'odham Indians.
The helicopter then fired two shots on the Tohono O'Odham Indian Nation, which sits on the border.
To achieve these objectives, two federally recognized American Indian tribes were selected to conduct an in-depth examination of the problem: the Saint Regis Mohawk and Tohono O'odham Nations.
Her internship took her to Arizona, where she was stationed with the Indian Health Service for the Pascua Yaqui and Tohono O'odham nations.
The rise in anti-checkpoint activism can be traced to an Arizona man named Terry Bressi, who was forcibly removed from his vehicle and arrested at an internal checkpoint on the Tohono O'odham Reservation in southern Arizona on December 20, 2002, about 20 to 30 miles from the border.
The remains of the indigenous O'odham people were unearthed on 21st May during the construction of the border wall between the US and Mexico.