Tohono O'Odham

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Tohono O'Odham

(tōhō`nō ō-ō`dəm) or


(păp`əgō', pä`–), Native North Americans speaking a language that belongs to the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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) and that is closely related to that of their neighbors, the PimaPima
, Native North American tribe of S Arizona. They speak the Pima language of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic family (see Native American languages). There are two divisions, the Lower Pima and the Upper Pima.
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. The probable ancestors of both the Pima and the Tohono O'Odham were the HohokamHohokam
, term denoting the culture of the ancient agricultural populations inhabiting the Salt and Gila river valleys of S Arizona (A.D. 300–1200). They are noted for their extensive irrigation systems, with canals over 10 mi (16 km) long that channeled water to
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 people. They were a semisedentary tribe who farmed corn, beans, and cotton and gathered wild vegetable products (e.g., the beans of the mesquite and the fruit of the giant cactus). Although farming remains the major economic activity of the Tohono O'Odham, many now are engaged in cattle raising. The women are known as excellent basket makers. The Tohono O'Odham formerly suffered dreadful depredations from their enemy, the Apache. They were early visited by Spanish missionaries, including Father Eusebio KinoKino, Eusebio Francisco
, c.1644–1711, missionary explorer in the American Southwest, b. Segno, in the Tyrol. He was in 1669 admitted to the Jesuit order. A distinguished mathematician, he observed the comet of 1680–81 at Cádiz, publishing his results in his
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 in 1694. In the 1860s they joined with the Pima and Maricopa in helping the United States to force a peace with the Apache. By an executive act of 1874 the United States created a reservation for the Tohono O'Odham in S Arizona; another was created in 1917. Today they live on these and on Pima and Maricopa reservations as well, all in Arizona. In 1990 there were close to 17,000 Tohono O'Odham in the United States; many others live in Sonora, Mexico.


See R. M. Underhill, Social Organization of the Papago Indians (1939, repr. 1969); J. Waddell, Papago Indians at Work (1969); B. Fontanta, Of Earth and Little Rain: the Papago Indians (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
A drafted contract, will be up for a vote, it would transfer $28 million from the Tohono O'Odham Nation to the city of Glendale over the next 2 decades.
The Tohono O'odham Police Department (TOPD) had violated state law by failing to file a copy of the complaint with the court prior to the court date.
The three populations in Arizona are on or near the Vekol Mountains in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Pinal County, on Koht Kohl Hill (also in the Tohono O'odham Nation), Pima County, and on and around the Waterman Mountains, Pima County.
Amid competing cries of "Secure our borders" and "Civil rights for immigrants" is the Tohono O'odham, America's second-largest Indian nation, still struggling after all these years for its survival.
In Albuquerque, Tohono O'odham tribal representatives raised concerns about getting passports, and Bureau of Consular Affairs representatives responded.
In southern Arizona near Tucson, the Tohono O'odham Community College is getting a $196,600 grant.
Set in Arizona, with scenes of fear unfolding within the Tohono O'odham Nation's reservation boundaries, "Queen of the Night" stars familiar Dr.
Bad Sugar," episode four, examines diabetes--stemming from poverty, oppression, and loss--among the Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians of southern Arizona.
When more than one or two employees need to know the ins and outs of a new technology, Chuck Wiese, general manager at Tohono O'odham Utility Authority (Sells, Ariz.
On the contrary, Nabhan argues that the associated level of violence is not necessarily the true "nature" of humans, citing examples of Southwest desert natives such as the hummingbird and O'odham tribal members, both of whom judiciously avoid expending too much energy on conflict unless their survival is at stake.
When Lizard Rock Designs, LLC, first approached the design process for Tohono O'odham Assisted Living Elder Homes, it was literally unlike anything the company had experienced before.
Eight pieces of art accompany text explaining how each piece evolved and how it reflected Tohono O'Odham life into his art, with black and white and color images alike exploring the author's life and art.