Daniel O'Connell

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O'Connell, Daniel,

1775–1847, Irish political leader. He is known as the Liberator. Admitted to the Irish bar in 1798, O'Connell built up a lucrative law practice. Gradually he became involved in the Irish fight for Catholic EmancipationCatholic Emancipation,
term applied to the process by which Roman Catholics in the British Isles were relieved in the late 18th and early 19th cent. of civil disabilities.
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; his abilities as a speaker, organizer, and leader soon advanced him to the uncontested command of the movement. In 1823 he founded the Catholic Association, a formidable and powerful agitation society, which despite English restrictive measures became a great national force. The pressure on Parliament was brought to a head by O'Connell's election in 1828 to a seat in the House of Commons (permitted by the repeal of the Test Act), despite his inability as a Catholic to take the oaths required to sit in Parliament. Alarmed, the government was obliged to pass (1829) the Catholic Emancipation Act. In Parliament, O'Connell supported the Whigs and the reform cause. He supported repeal of the parliamentary union of Great Britain and Ireland, forming a new agitation society to replace each one suppressed by the government. O'Connell worked indefatigably for the reform of the existing government of Ireland and for the abolition of compulsory support of the Church of Ireland. In 1841, O'Connell became the first Catholic lord mayor of Dublin since the time of James II. In 1843 he was indicted for creating disaffection; he was declared guilty and imprisoned, but the sentence was overturned (1844) by the House of Lords. Favoring constitutional methods, O'Connell lost support in the 1840s to nationalists who preferred revolutionary means to end the union and to solve the Irish Land QuestionIrish Land Question,
name given in the 19th cent. to the problem of land ownership and agrarian distress in Ireland under British rule. The long-term result of conquest, confiscation, and colonization was the creation of a class of English and Scottish landlords and of an
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. He also lost followers who resented his Catholic sectarianism. The secession of the Young Ireland group from his Repeal Association signified his declining authority. Ordered to seek a change for his health, he set out for Italy, where he died. O'Connell's eminence as a leader and creator of national feeling and unity greatly affected the history of Ireland.

Bibliography

See M. R. O'Connell, ed., Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell (1973); R. Dunlop, Daniel O'Connell and the Revival of National Life in Ireland (1900); A. D. Macintyre, The Liberator (1965); R. Moley, Daniel O'Connell (1974); biographies by S. O'Faolain (1938) and D. Gwynn (1947).

References in periodicals archive ?
O'Connell took to social media website Reddit, where he made baseless allegations, labelling Mzee a "good for nothing, spice smoking, Toxteth monkey".
Toulon were heavily linked with 35-year-old O'Connell in the aftermath of Sunday's European Champions Cup semi-final victory over Leinster in Marseille.
Talisman skipper O'Connell drove Ireland to retain their RBS 6 Nations title, claiming the first try in his side's 40-10 victory over Scotland at Murray-field.
Despite a career which saw him play for Manchester United and manage Barcelona, who he helped save from bankruptcy, and Ashington, he died destitute in London where the site of his unmarked grave inspired the Patrick O'Connell Fund.
O'Connell doubled in Surette, while Bahnick scored on a sacrifice fly by Varjabedian.
Antrim probably played the better hurling, but Offaly were dangerous close to the Saffron goal and forced O'Connell into six superb saves over the 70 minutes.
O'Connell, born in New York City but raised in Tucker, Ga.
O'Connell, 26, read a letter of resignation addressed to the mayor and the community.
Savitt Partners announced that Caroline O'Connell is now part of its brokerage team.
Michael O'Connell, 56, was before District Judge Hopkinson sitting in Huddersfield yesterday.
When Grahams Restaurant in Glacier closed a little more than three months ago, Kathleen O'Connell, who was a server there for four years, had the feeling that the tiny mountain town still had love to give to the renowned establishment.
I was not authorized to tell him any of this," O'Connell admits.