Organization of American States

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Organization of American States

(OAS), international organization, created Apr. 30, 1948, at Bogotá, Colombia, by agreement of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Another 15 nations have subsequently joined. The status of permanent observer is now held by 62 additional states and the European Union. The OAS is a regional agency designed to work with the United Nations to promote peace, justice, and hemispheric solidarity; to foster economic development (especially during the 1960s; see Alliance for ProgressAlliance for Progress,
Span. Alianza para el Progreso, U.S. assistance program for Latin America begun in 1961 during the presidency of John F. Kennedy. It was created principally to counter the appeal of revolutionary politics, such as those adopted in Cuba (see Fidel
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); and to defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the signatory nations. The general secretariat, formerly the Pan-American UnionPan-American Union,
former name for the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States (OAS). It was founded (1889–90) at the first of the modern Inter-American Conferences (see Pan-Americanism) as the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics and changed to
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, located in Washington, D.C, is the permanent body of the OAS. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights, est. 1979 by the OAS to enforce the American Convention on Human Right, is recognized by many OAS members (the United States and Canada are notable exceptions). The court is based in San José, Costa Rica.

After 1948, the OAS council set out to enforce the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, known as the Rio TreatyRio Treaty
(Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance), signed Sept. 2, 1947, and originally ratified by all 21 American republics. Under the treaty, an armed attack or threat of aggression against a signatory nation, whether by a member nation or by some other power, will
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 (see also Pan-AmericanismPan-Americanism,
movement toward commercial, social, economic, military, and political cooperation among the nations of North, Central, and South America. In the Nineteenth Century
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). The OAS has repeatedly opposed unilateral intervention in the affairs of member countries. However, the OAS did approve (1965) the U.S. intervention in the Dominican Republic's civil war, though it refused a similar action during the Nicaraguan revolution (1979). Among the many conflicts handled by the council were those between Costa Rica and Nicaragua (1948, 1949, and 1955), when the Nicaraguan regime of Anastasio SomozaSomoza, Anastasio
, 1896–1956, president of Nicaragua (1937–47, 1950–56). After the end (1933) of U.S. military intervention in Nicaragua, he rose to power as head of the national guard.
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 was censured for aiding the attempted overthrow of the Costa Rican regime of José Figueres FerrerFigueres Ferrer, José
, 1906–90, president of Costa Rica (1948–49, 1953–58, 1970–74). He rose to prominence as an outspoken critic of President Calderón Guardia in 1942 and was exiled to Mexico (1942–44).
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; the conflicts between the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo MolinaTrujillo Molina, Rafael Leonidas
, 1891–1961, president of the Dominican Republic (1930–38, 1942–52). Trained by U.S. marines during U.S. occupation of the country, he was army chief in the presidency of Horacio Vásquez, whom he ousted in 1930.
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 and Haiti, Cuba, Guatemala, and Venezuela (1949, 1950, and 1960); the Panamanian-U.S. conflict over control of the Panama Canal in 1964; the Honduras–El Salvador dispute in 1969; elections in El Salvador amid civil war (1984, 1989); the Panamanian-U.S. conflict (1988, 1989) over the involvement in drug trafficking of the dictator Manuel Antonio NoriegaNoriega, Manuel Antonio
, 1934–2017, Panamanian general. Commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces from 1983, when he promoted himself to full general, Noriega consolidated the strong-armed rule inherited from Gen.
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, and subsequent U.S. invasion (1990); and the Haitian coup overthrowing President Jean Bertrand AristideAristide, Jean-Bertrand
, 1953–, president of Haiti (1991, 1994–96, 2001–4). A radical Catholic priest who defended liberation theology, he worked among Haiti's poor and was part of a group of progressive priests who opposed the Duvalier dictatorship.
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 (1991, 1992).

A nearly five-decade issue for the OAS was its relationship with Cuba after the Cuban revolution (1959). In 1962, Cuba was formally suspended from the organization on charges of subversion. Two years later, a trade boycott was imposed on Cuba, but by the 1990s, practically all member nations except the United States had resumed trade and diplomatic relations with Cuba. In 2009, by which time the United States was the only American nation without relations with Cuba, the OAS's suspension of Cuba was ended, but Cuba, at least initially, rejected rejoining the OAS.

Bibliography

See studies by M. Ball (1969) and R. Scheman (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
The report was presented by the OAS Director of the Department of Social Inclusion, Betilde Muoz-Pogossian, and the Director of the Inter-American Childrens Institute, Victor Giorgi, who explained the methodology, background and main conclusions of the report.
The charter, whose signatories included the two-year-old Venezuelan government of Hugo Chavez, guarantees the right to democracy and obliges OAS member states to promote and defend it.
I see the OAS as very much complementary to other professional organisations in the Midlands, such as the Birmingham Office Market Forum, Industrial and Investment Agents Societies, and one of my key aims over the next two years will be to foster stronger relationships between us.
The official OAS CAHPS survey, which is developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), includes 37 questions that assess patient experience measures for hospital-based outpatient surgery departments and free-standing ambulatory surgery centres, as well as patient-reported health outcomes, said the company.
Maduro's government has asked the OAS not to interfere in Venezuela's internal affairs and respect international law.
Observers from throughout Latin America agree that Insulza's decade-long run as secretary general marked a period of significant decline for the OAS as evidenced by the various alterative mechanisms for regional integration that arose during that time.
OAS is most likely to be used in the valuation of mortgage-backed securities.
As OAS decisions have begun to reflect the increasing independence
Not Cuba, which was suspended from the OAS in 1962 following Fidel Castro's rise to power.
Lindsay Young, OSBV's managing director, says: "The Doha seminar follows the successful events in Aberdeen and Dubai where we explained the benefits of the OAS in maintaining operational efficiency, particularly in the adverse weather conditions Qatar experiences over the winter months.
The OAS program includes the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) which is a monthly allowance for low-income seniors.
We look forward to a positive and lively discussion at the OAS General Assembly on where we are and where we are headed in our community of nations In the Americas.