bey

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bey

(bā), general title of respect used by Turkish peoples since ancient times. Originally given to tribal leaders, it was later used by the Ottomans to denote a provincial ruler. At first the Ottoman beys were appointed, but by the 18th cent. the title had become hereditary. In Ottoman Egypt, the beys were descendants of the former Mamluk rulers.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bey

 

(Turkic; Russian, bai), in Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, the Altai, and, in part, the Caucasus. Before the October Revolution, a rich man, major landowner, livestock owner, or moneylender. The bey appeared in the precapitalist period. Toward the beginning of the 20th century there also arose a stratum of bey who belonged to the urban trade and industrial bourgeoisie.


Bey

 

(Turkic—ruler, master, prince; equivalent to the Arabic emir), title of the tribal and later feudal aristocracy in the Near and Middle East. In Turkey, also a form of address since the second half of the 19th century; abolished in 1934. In Tunis a bey was hereditary ruler of the country from 1705 to 1957. In certain parts of Iran tribal leaders have the title of bey.

In the regions that are now part of the USSR, the word was first encountered in the 14th century when Khan Uzbek of the Golden Horde conferred the title of bey on the Mongolian feudal lords, the noeons, who accepted Islam. The title of bey could be acquired by inheritance or conferred. In the Caucasus members of the dvorianstvo (nobility or gentry) were called beys by the Turkic peoples. The word “bey” is placed after the name.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

bey

(in the Ottoman Empire) a title given to senior officers, provincial governors, certain other officials or nobles, and (sometimes) Europeans
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Among these loci and genes TYR OCA2 TYRP1 MC1R SLC45A2 and OCA5 locus are reported in Pakistani population.
Zubair Ahmad and his colleagues determined that TYR and OCA2 is the most prevalent gene in Pakistani population13.
OCA2 results from mutations in the human homologue of the mouse pink-eyed dilution gene, OCA2 (formally known as the P gene).
[20] In parts of Africa, including SA, about 80% of OCA2 chromosomes will carry the deletion, making it a useful diagnostic tool.
1), is much milder than OCA1 and OCA2. It was first described in Nigeria, [28] but we have since shown that it is a milder form of OCA2 resulting from mutations in the OCA2 gene.
Like OCA2, the precise function of this gene is not known, however, pigment production is significantly reduced in its absence.