His final sentence of ten years corrective labor was rendered by the OGPU
Collegium on 18 August 1931.
Ezhov Iagoda's successor at the OGPU
(now the NKVD) ordered the re-arrest and shooting of "the most hostile [to the regime] and re-arrest and exile for the "less active but still hostile"--with lists to be prepared within five days.
I believe it necessary to show this letter to [Feliks] Dzerzhinsky [the head of the OGPU] with extreme secrecy (no copies) and to all members of the Politburo and to prepare a directive: 'To direct Dzerzhinsky OGPU
to work out measures with the assistance of Semashko and to report to the Politburo (two week deadline?).'"
Munzenberg was no romantic revolutionary; he was an old Bolshevik to the core, and he would have scorned the idea of personal martyrdom, yet the fact that he did not try to escape to Britain or America gives the lie to Koch's view that he was merely a stalking-horse of Stalin and the OGPU
. How grimly prescient was Lenin's comment "We are dead men on furlough" as it applied to those of his comrades who shared with him exile, revolution, civil war and survived--only to be brought down by the Red Tsar in the Kremlin.
When women resisted, the brigade members dragged them around by their braids.,  According to an OGPU
report, the local sel'sovet told peasants that they had twenty-four hours to turn over their grain.
His intelligence service OGPU
(the predecessor of the KGB) had already infiltrated Britain, which was considered Soviet Russia's most dangerous opponent.
His revulsion for "systematic planners," his belief that five-year plans are inseparable from "the Ogpu
" or "the Gestapo" (212), is a constant refrain.
As the chief planner of Trotsky's assassination, this is how Sudoplatov justifies himself: "The order to eliminate Trotsky did not surprise us, because for ten years the OGPU
and NKVD had been engaged in war with Trotsky and his organization.
An active and prominent member of the T cheka since 1920 (it was renamed the GPU in 1921 and then the OGPU
in 1923), Beria was already a feared apparatchik who swore fealty only to Stalin.
272) This collectivization process was extremely brutal, - and Stalin used any tool at hand to implement it, including the infamous OGPU
. Eventually, he restored to the use of concentration camps and "liquidation." The result is what has been called, "probably the most massive warlike operation ever conducted by a state against its own citizens," (3, p.
" In 1922 it was replaced by the GPU, or State Political Administration, which shortly thereafter became the OGPU
(United State Political Administration).
"This editorial intimates that the FBI is carrying on OGPU
and Cheka tactics; that the Director is anti-labor and anti-union.'