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(ôräN`), city (1998 pop. 692,516), capital of Oran prov., NW Algeria, a port on the Gulf of Oran of the Mediterranean Sea. One of the country's leading ports, it ships wheat, wine, alcohol, vegetables, meat, wool, cigarettes, and iron ore. The city, surrounded by vineyards and market gardens, is a commercial, industrial, and financial center. Oran is divided into a modern, French-style section and an old Spanish-type quarter with a casbah (fortress). Its frequently visited 18th-century mosque was bombed in 1995 by Islamist militants who objected to the adoration of saints, a practice forbidden by Islam.

The site of modern Oran has been inhabited since prehistoric times, but the city's founding is generally attributed to Moorish Andalusian traders in the 10th cent. Oran's subsequent prosperity, based on commerce, was interrupted when the Moors began to engage in piracy, thus provoking reprisals from Spain. Spanish forces captured and fortified the city in 1509 and held it until the Turks arrived in 1708. Spain recovered Oran in 1732. The city was successfully besieged (1791) by the district governor of Mascara and was made a provincial capital of the Ottoman Empire.

French troops captured Oran in 1831 and began to develop it as a naval base, along with nearby Mers-el-KebirMers-el-Kebir
, town, NW Algeria, on the Gulf of Oran. Originally a Roman port, it has a long history of maritime importance. During the 15th cent. it was a center of activity for corsairs and was twice occupied by the Portuguese.
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. The building of the port and the construction of railroads linking Oran with the interior made the city the economic capital of W Algeria in the late 19th cent. Oran, held by Vichy France during World War II, fell to the Allied forces in Nov., 1942. Civil strife ravaged the city in the late 1950s; the French terrorist OAS (Secret Army Organization) and the Algerian nationalist FLN (Front for National Liberation) perpetrated violence against civilians. There followed a general exodus of the European population, which had been the largest, proportionally, of any North African city. The city provided the setting for Albert Camus's novel The Plague.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in northwestern Algeria and capital of the Oran wilaya. Main industrial, commercial, and transportation center of Algeria’s northwest. Population, 440,000 (1970, including suburbs).

In 1971, Oran’s seaport handled 1,900,000 tons, including such goods for export as wine, early vegetables and fruits (mainly artichokes and oranges), and esparto grass. Oran is a major railroad and highway junction, and the La Senia Airport is nearby.

Oran has food-processing and metalworking plants and chemical enterprises, including a large superphosphate plant. It also has a steel-smelting and pipe-rolling mill. Industries include textiles and the production of glass, cement, and other construction materials. There is a thermoelectric power plant in the city. Local craftsmen make handmade leather footwear and woolen articles.

Oran has a university. The municipal museum displays archaeological, ethnographic, and zoological materials. The Tlemcen Museum has a collection of Islamic art. Oran was founded in the tenth century.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a port in NW Algeria: the second largest city in the country; scene of the destruction by the British of most of the French fleet in the harbour in 1940 to prevent its capture by the Germans. Pop.: 744 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Open RAN

(OPEN Radio Access Network) Open RAN (two words) or ORAN refers to creating standard open interfaces between cellular network hardware and software. OpenRAN (one word) may refer to either of two Telecom Infra Project groups: OpenRAN project group (2G/3G/4G) or OpenRAN 5G NR.

O-RAN (with a dash) refers to the O-RAN Alliance, which publishes open specifications and software for RANs. See RAN.
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References in periodicals archive ?
blanchi, E., Orar la Palabra, 117-148; ZEVINI, G., La lectio divina en la comunidad cristiana: espiritualidad, metodo, praxis, Estella: Verbo Divino, 2005, 149-170; y CALDUCH, N., Saboreando la Palabra, 83-100.
<<Cuando el intelecto es despojado de las pasiones y es iluminado por la contemplacion de los seres ([Texto irreproducible.]), entonces puede estar tambien con Dios y orar como es debido ([Texto irreproducible.])>> (50).
Se trata de un escrito espiritual que tiene su origen en la reunion de quienes, durante la Semana Santa, acuden a orar, en torno a la iglesia de Sant'Egidio y a la basilica de Santa Maria in Trastevere, en Roma, durante la tarde y hasta bien entrada la noche.