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city (1990 pop. 372,242), seat of Alameda co., W Calif., on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay; inc. 1852. Together with San Francisco and San Jose, the city comprises the fourth largest metropolitan area in the United States. A containerized shipping port and a major rail terminus, Oakland has shipyards, chemical plants, glassworks, food-processing establishments, an iron foundry, and high-technology companies. Manufactures include foods, cleaners, electronic goods, and canvas and metal products. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay BridgeSan Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge,
double-decked structure, W Calif.; built 1933–36 and (eastern section replacement) 2002–13. It has a total length of 8.25 mi (13.2 km).
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 was opened in 1936 and connects Oakland with other nearby cities. Oakland is the headquarters and hub of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART; opened 1972), a three-county rapid transit system that connects to San Francisco and other area communities. It also has an international airport.

On Oct. 17, 1989, an earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area, resulting in severe damage to Oakland. The earthquake's toll took 62 lives and injured thousands. In 1991, a wind-driven fire devastated the city's northeastern section. Besides the reconstruction following these two disasters, there was considerable redevelopment of Oakland's waterfront area in the late 20th century.

Of interest are the Oakland Museum, Chabot Space and Science Center, the Morcom Rose Garden, Jack London Square, and the Cathedral of Christ the Light. The city has a symphony orchestra, notable parks, a state arboretum, a children's amusement park, and a zoo. It is the seat of Mills College, Holy Names Univ., and California College of the Arts. Most of Oakland's many military facilities closed in the 1990s, but the Coast Guard still maintains a presence there. The city is home to the Athletics (American League baseball) and the Golden State Warriors (National Basketball Association). Jack LondonLondon, Jack
(John Griffith London), 1876–1916, American author, b. San Francisco. The illegitimate son of William Chaney, an astrologer, and Flora Wellman, a seamstress and medium, he had a poverty-stricken childhood, and was brought up by his mother and her subsequent
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 lived in Oakland.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in the western USA, in the state of California. Population, 362,000 (1970). Oakland is near San Francisco, with which it is connected by a 6.9-km-long bridge. A commercial and transportation center, it is a port on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay and the terminus of a number of transcontinental railroad lines. Industry employs 28,000 people and includes shipyards, metalworks, food-processing and chemical enterprises, and large-scale automobile assembly plants.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a port and industrial centre in W California, on San Francisco Bay; damaged by earthquake in 1989. Pop.: 398 844 (2003 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Oakland and crime are interwoven in the popular American consciousness.
Sabeghi said he had joined the Occupy Oakland demonstration last Wednesday, then left and gone out to dinner with a friend.
He split last year between San Diego and Oakland, posting a combined line of .265/.307/456.
The office building is not included in the Oakland Crossings offering.
Paul Ziolek, Oakland's operations director said: "Paul's appointment as IT and infrastructure manager is a key ingredient to Oakland's ongoing programme of continual business investment in new technology and IT solutions to support our ever growing UK, Irish and international client base.
Because this has been an ongoing problem that the police haven't been able to stop, this is not the first incident in which an Oakland store owner has shot a robber--and it wouldn't prove to be the last.
A longtime Oakland Tribune reporter, Bailey was named editor of the Oakland Post in June.
Examples of the initiatives include job training for Oakland residents to create a work force to attract new green businesses and education and development programs to teach youth about energy efficiency "and empower them to become part of a new green sustainable economy."
In this down-at-the-heels neighborhood of 28,000, located between downtown Oakland and San Francisco Bay, the only grocery store is Eugene International Gateway Foods.
I lived in Oakland for so long that I'm used to the city and I dig it, but I think people who are foreign [to the East Bay] think it's a gnarly place and there's this really negative, dangerous atmosphere.
Oakland was selected for its Material Management Program (MMP), according to press release from the ACI-NA.
The Airports Council International--North America (ACI-NA) has selected Oakland International Airport, Oakland, Calif., as a winner of the 2006 Environmental Achievement Award.